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Closed Circuit Television in

Student Housing

Big Brother or A Way of Life


CCTV/Security
Cameras in Housing?
Policies Regarding
CCTV/Security
Cameras?
Security vs Privacy
1960s
Cameras to Combat
Terrorism
Government Monitoring
of Credit Card Sales to
Track Terrorists
Millennials accept loss
of privacy – to a point
digital privacy
46%

34%
a little
20%

never
most
Big Brother ?
Last 20 Years
A Way of Life
CCTV in Housing?

75% 25%
Yes No
Yes No
Camera Locations - Housing

Exterior Elevator
Doors and Stairs
94% 63% Floors w/
Community Private Bath
Space 37.5% Floors w/
75% Community Bath
19%
Camera Locations –
Non-Housing

Outdoors Dining
82% 55%
Admin Athletics
Offices 55%
55% Classrooms
18%
Who owns the CCTV System?

56% 38% 6%

Housing Police
Housing Campus Police Other
How is CCTV Monitored?

25% 75%
Limited 24/7 Not actively monitored
All cameras actively watched 24/7 Limited cameras actively watched 24/7 Not actively monitored
Video Retention

44% 38% 19%


< 30 days 30-60 days > 60
Video retained < 30 days Video retained 30-60 days Video retained > 60 days
Housing CCTV Policy?

50% 50%
Yes No
Yes No
Institution CCTV Policy?

38% 63%
Yes No
Yes No
Occupancy/Camera Stats

Camera Occupants per


counts - camera –
8 to 2200 2.72 to 200
Average
Occupancy –
13.74
248 to 9000
Training Content

12% 38% 19% 8% 31%


None Policies FERPA FOIA Software
No training provided CCTV policies/procedures FERPA FOIA Software/Hardware specific
Training Recurrence

19% 6%
80%
Annually
No training recurrence
Annually Training required every 2 years or more No training recurrence is required
Five Prepared Questions Asked of the
Student Focus Group Participants

Security

Safety

Privacy
Accountability
“We’re okay with Big
Brother watching.”
“Genuinely
cared for”

“Makes me feel
safe and secure” “What’s the point of
having a camera if it’s “Safety
not doing its job? blanket”
“We’re used to
cameras. We grew up “If we’re going to have
with them.” cameras, let’s have the best
ones.”
CCTV at the University of Arkansas

1990
1994
1995
Conversations with Legal
Counsel, UAPD, and
Housing 3 key elements
related to CCTV:
Implementation
Policies
Training
CCTV at the University of Arkansas
Policy focused on
expectations and
responsibilities for
CCTV use

Mandatory training for all


SOP outlines users granted access
requesting camera
access, approval Online refresher training
process, training, and
capturing video/stills E-mail listserve
Camera Overview

655
cameras, DVR->Avigilon Police more
1159 involved
campus
total Analog->IP
Expect more IT
involvement
CCTV Infrastructure Costs

Camera Server
$750 +++ $2,000 +++
Network
Encoder Cabling Switches
$550 $25 to $1,600 $3200 +

16 Camera System
$17,600 to $42,800
Preventing Big Brother
use
access
controls
location
monitoring
retention
training
review

auditing
communication
“I think there’s this perception
that Millennials don’ t care
about privacy because we’re
always on Twitter and Tumbler
and Facebook talking about our
lives with the world. But that ’s
not about privacy, that ’s about
a sense of self.”
Kristen Lim, 2011 William & Mary Graduate
REFERENCES

112th Congress Public Law 265: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-


112publ265/html/PLAW-112publ265.htm

Analysis of Ethical Management Policies for Use of CCTV on College Campuses:


http://fisherpub.sjfc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1148&context=education_etd

Assessing the Impact of CCTV:


http://www.popcenter.org/Responses/video_surveillance/PDFs/Gill&Spriggs_2005.pdf

CCTV Cameras and Your Privacy: http://www.yourprivacy.co.uk/cctvsystems.html

CCTV: Developing Privacy Best Practices:


https://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/privacy/privacy_rpt_cctv_2007.pdf

Look to Millennial Generation to Balance US Security Needs and Privacy Rights:


http://www.csmonitor.com/Commentary/Opinion/2013/0604/Look-to-Millennial-
generation-to-balance-US-security-needs-and-privacy-rights
REFERENCES

Millennials Prefer Security to


Privacy: http://www.mikeandmorley.com/millennials_prefer_security_to_privacy

Privacy and CCTV: A Guide to the Privacy Act for Businesses, Agencies and Organisations:
http://www.privacy.org.nz/assets/Files/Brochures-and-pamphlets-and-pubs/Privacy-and-
CCTV-A-guide-October-2009.pdf

Public Video Surveillance: Is It an Effective Crime Prevention Tool?:


https://www.library.ca.gov/crb/97/05/

Review of Studies on Surveillance Camera Effectiveness:


https://privacysos.org/camera_studies/

Security Cameras In Schools: Protective Or


Invasive?: http://www.npr.org/2012/09/04/160551340/security-cameras-in-school-
protective-or-invasive

State Surveillance and the Right to Privacy: http://www.surveillance-and-


society.org/articles1/statesurv
REFERENCES

Study Shows Surveillance Cameras Reduce Crime, In Some Cases:


http://www.homelandsecuritynewswire.com/study-shows-surveillance-
cameras-reduce-crime-some-cases

Surveillance Studies Centre FAQs:


http://www.sscqueens.org/projects/scan/faqs

The Effect of CCTV on Public Safety: Research Roundup:


http://journalistsresource.org/studies/government/criminal-
justice/surveillance-cameras-and-crime

Using Video Surveillance on College Campuses:


http://www.securityinfowatch.com/article/10550786/using-video-
surveillance-on-college-campuses

What Makes a Mass Shooting in America:


https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/12/03/what-makes-
a-mass-shooting-in-america/?utm_term=.708eeed1689b
eroberts@uark.edu

fperrod@uark.edu

fjohnso@uark.edu