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THE RESEARCH

PROBLEM
Chapter 1
Understanding the Basics of Research

■ Research is vital for development.


■ Research is not only for experts.
Article XIV. Sec. 10: The 1987Phil. Constitution

“The State shall give priority to research and


development, invention, innovation, and their
utilization, and to science and technology education,
training, and services. It shall support indigenous,
appropriate, and self-reliant scientific and
technological capabilities, and their application to
the country’s productive systems and national life.
Article XIV. Sec. 11: The 1987 Phil. Constitution

“Congress may provide for incentives, including


tax deductions, to encourage private participation
in programs of basic and applied scientific
research.
RESEARCH DEFINITIONS

■ Research is a process of identifying possible


solutions to the complex problems of man. It is
the ultimate remedy when he is not capable of
rationalizing the nature, causes and effects of
his problems in a short span of time.”
Research Definitions

■ Kerlinger as cited by Sevilla et.al., (1992)


defines research as a “systematic, controlled,
empirical and critical investigation of
hypothetical propositions about the presumed
relations among natural phenomena.”
Research Definitions

According to Calderon and Gonzales (1993),


research may be defined as “a purposive,
systematic and scientific process of gathering,
analyzing, classifying, organizing, presenting, and
interpreting data for the solution of a problem, for
prediction, for invention, for the discovery of truth, or
for the expansion or verification of existing
knowledge, all for the preservation of human life.”
Research Definitions

David (2003) says that “research is an educational


activity that enables one to discover new things and
ideas, helps understand how and why a situation
exists and provides accurate and reliable
information which can be used as basis for making
decisions.”
TYPES OF RESEARCH
1. BASIC RESEARCH

2. APPLIED RESEARCH

3. ACTION RESEARCH
RESEARCH FORMAT

Research formats help researchers to have an


overview of the study. Conceptualizing the
entire picture of the study enables the
researcher to anticipate possible problems.
Detailed explanations in all aspects of the
research format are made.
PARTS OF A RESEARCH OR THESIS
1. Title/Research Problem
2. Chapter 1 – The Problem
 Rationale of the Study/Situational Analysis
 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
 Statement of the Problem
 Hypothesis
 Assumptions
 Scope and Delimitation
 Definition of Terms
 Importance of Study
3. Chapter 2 – Review of Literature
 Published Materials (Professional Literature)
 Unpublished Materials (Related Studies)
4. Chapter 3 – Research Methodology
 Research Designs
 Sources of Data
1. Population of the Study
2. Sampling
3. Data Gathering Instrument and Procedures
 Data Analysis and Statistical Tools
Chapter 4 – Presentation, Interpretation and
Analysis of Data
Chapter 5 – Summary, Findings, Conclusions and
Recommendations.
Appendices
Bibliography
Curriculum Vitae
THANK YOU!!!
The Title of the Study/ Research
Problem
■ Identification of a problem is the most
fundamental part of research.
■ The problem of limited knowledge and skills in
research is a good problem to tackle.
■ The problem can be used as titles of research
such as the following
■ STUDENTS’ POTENTIALS AND PROBLEMS IN
SOCIAL RESEARCH

■ RESEARCH SKILLS AND ATTITUDES OF TEACHER


EDUCATION STUDENTS

■ EFFECTS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING ON


ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTITUDES OF TEACHER
EDUCATION STUDENTS TOWARDS RESEARCH
Some Characteristics of a Good
Research Problem
1. It must be relevant to the needs of the time
2. It must be within the researcher’s interest
and capabilities.
3. It must be clear, specific and attainable
within a given period of time.
4. Information should be available.
Some Characteristics of a Good
Research Problem
5. It should not be harmful to people and society.
6. It must be new.
7. It should provide information for planning,
development and legislation.
8. If you are writing research titles avoid redundancies
like “ A review of…,” “An evaluation of ….,” An analysis
…” etc. because the researcher will review, evaluate
and assess the problem anyway.
Sources of a Problem
1. When there is dissatisfaction in services and
information.
2. Problems may be encountered in classrooms
or at work.
3. Breakthroughs in science and technology
may present unexpected problems.
4. Research thrusts and priorities of certain
organizations.
5. Misconceptions in culture
Statement of the Problem Guide
1. The major problem of the study can be
stated by briefly pointing out the objectives,
the subject and the coverage as well as the
time frame.
Example: This study aims to determine the
status of Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College
during the academic year 2001-2002 to serve as
basis for formulating its three-year development
plan
Statement of the Problem Guide
2. Specify the sub-problems of the main
problem.
3. Include all possible components under sub-
problems of the study.
4. State the sub-problems in either interrogative
or declarative form. If the study is experimental,
it is advisable to state it in the declarative form
Statement of the Problem Guide
5. You should also have advance information on
the instrument to be used for data gathering.
This will help you prepare the methodology of
the study.
6. The statement of the problem must be brief,
clear, specific and relevant.
THREE LEVELS OF INQUIRY

Level 1.
Level 1 questions are usually used in
descriptive researches. They usually start with
“what” and are exploratory in nature.
Example: What are some of the
problems encountered by state universities and
colleges of Region 1 in the implementations of
production?
THREE LEVELS OF INQUIRY
Level 2.
Level 2 questions ask relationships or
differences between independent and
dependent variables.
Examples 1: Is there a significant
correlation between the level of skills and
attitudes of teachers in the use of instructional
materials?
THREE LEVELS OF INQUIRY
Example 2: Is there a significant difference
between the groups of respondents on the
extent of involvement in the implementation of
production?
THREE LEVELS OF INQUIRY
Level 3
Level 3 research questions are usually
stated in “why” and “how” questions.
Examples
1: How effective is the adoption of
production in raising financial resources of the
state universities and colleges in Region 1?
2. To what extent do teachers manifest the
degree of seriousness of problems encountered
in the use of instructional materials?
RATIONALE OF THE STUDY/
SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS
■ This is the first part of Chapter 1.
■ Some call it background of the study while
others call it situational analysis.
■ Both refer to the introduction of the study.
RATIONALE OF THE STUDY/
SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS
■ Some aspects of the background are
integrated into the theoretical framework,
objectives of the study, scope and delimitation
and importance of the study.
■ Presentation must be brief but enough to
justify the need to conduct the study.
RATIONALE OF THE STUDY/
SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS
■ There should be a theme in writing the
background of the study.
■ The theme serves as an outline so that there
is continuity of ideas and is based on the
important variables of the study, their scope
and characteristics.
■ The presentation must be in deductive
approach.
RATIONALE OF THE STUDY/
SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS
■ Introductory statement must be eye-catching.
■ Issues relating to the investigation should be
quoted or documented to encourage readers
to read on.
■ The study should also be recent.
RATIONALE OF THE STUDY/
SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS
■ The last part of the study is the situational
analysis to present information on the problem
and what prompts the researcher to venture
into such a study.
■ The analysis attempts to show that the study is
relevant and contributes to the existing fund of
knowledge.
THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL
FRAMEWORK
■ A research study should be supported with
various theories and concepts, to show that
the study is researchable on a scientific basis.
■ The theories relative to the investigation
provides directions on undertaking the study
THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL
FRAMEWORK
■ Theories are formulated after reviewing related
literatures.
■ It must be organized and logical
■ Some researchers place theoretical and
conceptual frameworks in Chapter 2 of the
thesis.
THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL
FRAMEWORK
Example: The researcher is working on a
thesis entitled “Determinants of job satisfaction
and productivity of elementary school teachers
in Northern Luzon.”
HOW CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK IS
MADE?
■ After incorporating the theories and concepts,
the conceptual framework is made.
■ Concepts are presented in the form of a
paradigm or model showing the steps or
process to be used in the study.
■ Paradigm illustrates important variables of the
study. These are: Independent, Moderator,
Dependent.
TYPES OF RESEARCH VARIABLE

■ Independent Variables are input variables; in


descriptive research, they are not
manipulated.
■ Moderator variables are secondary input
variables, which affect or influence the
independent variable.
■ Dependent variable is the outcome of the
study
■ The profile and working conditions, along with
human relations, physical facilities and
equipment, administrative support, financial
resources, policies and standards etc., are
independent variables
■ the level of job satisfaction and productivity is
the dependent variable.
■ Government interventions can be a moderator
variable.
Research Problem: Performance and aspirations of
non-education mathematics teachers of state
universities and colleges in Region I.
Sub-problems:
I. Profile of respondents as to: Example of
Research
a. academic rank Paradigm

b. educational qualifications
c. mathematics units
d. training
e. teaching experience
f. membership in mathematics and science
organizations
g. honors and scholarships received
Sub-problems:
2. Level of performance of respondents:
a. commitment
b. knowledge of subject matter
c. teaching for independent learning
d. management of learning
3. Level of aspiration of respondents:
a. social
b. economical
c. professional
Sub-problems:
4. Extent of following variables related to:
a. profile and level of performance
b. profile and level of aspiration
c. level of performance and level of
aspiration
INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT
VARIABLES VARIABLES

Profile of respondents as to: Level of Performance

a. Academic rank a. Commitment


b. Educational qualifications b. Knowledge of the subject
c. Units in mathematics c. Teaching for independent
learning
d. Training
d. Management of knowledge
e. Teaching experience
f. Membership in
mathematics and science Level of Aspirations
organizations a. Social
g. Honors and scholarships b. Economic
received. c. Professional
Paradigm of the Study
■ The paradigm can be illustrated using the inputs,
throughputs and outputs.
■ Sometimes the paradigm does not necessarily
indicate dependent and independent variables.
■ Serves as a basis for conducting the study together
with the statement of the problem.
■ All sub-problems are reflected are reflected in the
paradigm in order to map out the direction of the
study. A guideline for the theoretical framework
follows.
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to determine the productivity of
master teachers in the division of La Union during school
year 2002-2003.

Specifically, it answers the following problems:


1. What is the profile of master teachers in the
division of La Union in terms of:
a. personal attributes
b. educational qualifications
Example No.2 showing
c. professional experience the paradigm based on
statement of the problem
2. What is the extent of productivity of master
teachers on:
a. teaching
b. active research
c. community service
3. Is there a significant relationship between the
profile and extent of productivity of master teachers
in the division of La Union?
4. Are there significant correlations between the
extent of productivity of master teachers along
the following variables?
a. teaching and action research
b. teaching and community services
c. community services and action research
5. Are there significant differences between the
extent of productivity of master teachers in the
division of La Union?
INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT
VARIABLES VARIABLES

Master Teachers Extent of Productivity along:

a. Personal attributes a. teaching performance

b. Educational qualifications b. Action Research

c. Professional experience c. community service


Guidelines in Making a Theoretical
Framework
■ Topic: Learning, education, teaching strategies and
motivation
Theories Proponents Contents / Views
1. Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov 1.
Theory
2. Operant Conditioning Burrhus F. Skinner 2.
Theory
3. Social Learning Theory Albert bandura 3.
4. Theory of Moral Lawrence Kohlberg 4.
Development
HYPOTHESIS
■ It is a working guide in research, the expected
outcome of the study.
■ Defined as an “educated guess.”
■ Based on the statement of the problem and
sub-problem.
■ The number of sub-problems is also the
number of hypothesis in the study.
TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS
■ Descriptive hypothesis is for descriptive
questions.

■ Statistical hypothesis is for questions on the


relationship or differences of data obtained in
descriptive questions
Examples of hypothesis and sub-problems
Sub-problems Hypothesis
1. What is the profile of the 1. Majority of respondents are male,
respondents in terms of: belonging to the 20-25 age bracket and
a. sex college graduates.
b. age 2. There is a significant correlation
c. educational attainment between the skills and attitudes of
2. Is there a significant correlation teachers in the use of instructional
between the skills and attitudes of materials.
teachers in the use of IMs. 3. The status of waste management in
3. What is the status of waste selected LGUs of Ilocos Sur is “good.”
management in selected LGUs of 4. There is no significant difference
Ilocos Sur? between chartered and component
4. Is there a significant difference cities in Northern Luzon in terms of
between chartered and component waste disposal management.
cities in Northern Luzon in terms of
waste management?
HYPOTHESIS
■ Is also stated in null or positive form.
■ Positive hypothesis is the opposite of null
hypothesis. In some searches, statistical
hypothesis is presented in positive form and
becomes negative or null before the
interpretations of the findings.
Sub-problem:
What is the status of production of SUCs on:
a. programs/projects/activities
b. administrative support
c. policies and strategies
d. problems encountered
1. Descriptive Hypothesis
The status of SUC production is good in terms of
programs/projects/activities, administrative support and
policies and strategies while problems encountered are
fairly serious.
2. Statistical Hypothesis
There is no significant correlation between the skills
and attitudes of teachers in the use of instructional
materials.
Example of Positive Hypothesis
■ There is a significant difference between the level
of awareness among Sangguniang Kabataan on
SK roles and functions in community development
and their extent of involvement in community
programs and projects.
■ Significant differences exist between perceptions
of groups of respondents on the management of
the physical plant and facilities of the Ilocos Sur
Polytechnic State College.
Example of Null Hypothesis
■ There is no significant difference between the level
of awareness among Sangguniang Kabataan on
SK roles and functions in community development
and their extent of involvement in community
programs and projects.
■ No significant differences exist between
perceptions of groups of respondents on the
management of the physical plant and facilities of
the Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College.
ASSUMPTIONS
■ It is optional
■ Most likely given when hypothesis are stated
together with the sub-problem.
■ Is the opposite of a hypothesis.
■ Not necessarily answered or proven because they
are assumed to be true or correct which are
beyond the control of the researcher.
Examples of assumptions
■ There are factors associated with the low
performance of students in mathematics/
■ The attitudes of students towards mathematics
affect their level of performance.
■ The performance of students in mathematics can be
determined.
■ The attitudinal instrument in mathematics is valid
and reliable.
■ Perceptions of respondents on mathematics can be
quantified.
SCOPE AND DELIMITATION
■ Scope answers the “what”, “where,” “when,”
“who,” and “why” of the study. Sevilla, et.al.,
(1992) state that the scope sets the
delimitation and establishes the delimitation
and establishes the boundaries of the study.
■ Limitation of the study points out the variables
not included.
■ It discusses the reasons for excluding them in
the investigation.
Reasons for excluding some variables
of the study
■ The study appears too vague. There is
tendency to lose or de-emphasize the main
objective of the study.
■ When the coverage of the study is very broad.
■ A thesis or a dissertation is a partial
requirement for a degree. When it is not
accomplished within a given period, it can
delay graduation.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

2 Ways of Defining Terms

■ Operational Definition

■ Conceptual Definition
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
■ There is no need to specify the direct beneficiaries
of the study
■ Its importance shall be pointed out especially to
the end users to serve as a guide in identifying its
value.
■ Furthermore it states its contribution to the fund of
knowledge.
■ States the need for the study to be made in that
field. It points out the knowledge to be derived
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
■ The macro to micro, or from general to specific
approach is ideal.
■ If the title of the study is “Research Climate
and Productivity of SUCs in Northern Luzon,”
you may state the importance of the study
using this approach:
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is beneficial to the following:
1. legislators
2. faculty
3. researchers
4. students
5. school administrators and curriculum
planners.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

■ is when a researcher defines the terms as he


uses them in the study.
■ They can be defined according to the variables
included in the instrument of the study.
CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION

■ Is mostly concerned with attributing


authorities like books, magazines, etc.,
including unpublished materials.
■ Terms are usually quoted by a researcher.
■ Technical studies usually define terms as an
explanatory device.
BASIC RESEARCH
■ This is sometimes known as pure research.
According to Calderon and Gonzales (1993), it
is done for the development of theories or
principles. The goal of the researcher is to
explore in order to come up with principles
which will serve as the bases for further
knowledge and development.
APPLIED RESEARCH

■ This is research which primarily aims to test


theories and concepts developed for
verification, application, development, support
and their relationships to existing fund of
knowledge.
ACTION RESEARCH

■ It is simpler than basic research and applied


research. The focus is on immediate solution
of the problem without necessarily using
scientific principles in order to find solutions to
a problem. In education, action research is
used to remedy common teaching and
learning problems.