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FIRDA DWI

FATMALA RATIH
SETIANI
1613022056
1613022010
1613022002
1613022042 1613022022

MURNI
AMELIA YUNI URSELLA
SAPUTRI OKTARIANI

Atomic Nucleus and Radioactivity


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Do you know about that picture ?

P e r i o d i c Ta b l e
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Oktaf
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Antonie 01 Newlands
05 Mendeleev
Lavoiser

04 Lothar
Triade Periodic table
02 Meyer
Dobereiner 06 of modern
elements

H i s t o r y o f Pe r io d ic Ta b l e

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Antonie Lavoiser

.
Triade Dobereiner
6,94 LiA
Triaade’s Law
22,99 Na

39,10 K

Atomic mass Na=(atomic mass Li+atomic mass K):2


Atomic mass Na=(6,94+39,10):2=23,02=23

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Oktaf Newlands
I n 1 8 6 3 , J . W N e w l a n d s l i s t e d e l e m e n t s b a s e d
o n t h e i n c r e a s e i n a t o m i c m a s s

Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Si
H Li Be B C N O
F Na Mg Al Si P S
Cl K Ca Cr Ti Mn Fe
Co dan Ni Cu Zn Y Ln As Se

Br Rb Sr Ce dan La Zn Di/Mo Ro/Ru

Pd Ag Cd U Sn Sb Te
I Cs Ba/V Ta W Nb Au
Pt Tl Pb Th Hg Bi As

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Lothar Meyer
In 1870, Lothar Meyer tried to list the elements with
regard to physical properties, namely the volume of
atoms. Lothar Meyer graphs the volume of
elemental atoms to their atomic mass.

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Mendeleev
Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleev in 1869 in Russia suggested the
STATE between elemental mass and elemental properties

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P e r i o d i c Ta b l e M e n d e l e e v
Periode Gol I Gol II Gol III Gol IV Gol V Gol VI Gol VII Gol VIII
1 H 1
2 Li 7 Be 9,4 B 11 C 12 N 14 O 16 F 19
3 Na 23 Mg 24 Al 27,3 Si 28 P 31 S 32 C 35,5
Fe 56, Co 59,
4 K 39 Ca 40 -(44) Ti 48 V 51 Cr 52 Mn 55
Ni 59, Cu 63
5 Cu 63 Zn 65 -(68) - (72) As 75 Se 78 Br 80
Ru 104, Rh
6 Rb 86 Sr 87 -Yt (88) Zr 90 Nb 94 Mo 96 - (100) 104, Pd 106,
Ag 108
7 Ag 108 Cd 112 In 115 Sn 118 Sb 122 Te 125 I 127
8 Cs 133 Ba 137 - Di 138 - Ce 140 - - - -
9 - - - - - - -
Os 195, Ir
10 - - -Er 178 - La 180 Ta 182 Ta 182 -
197
Pu 198, Au
11 Au 199 Hg 200 TI 204 Pb 207 Bi 208 Bi 208 -
199
12 - - - Th 231 - - - 9
M O D E R N P E R I O D I C TA B L E

Periodic Table IUPAC Periodic Table American System

The periodic table of elements used now, namely the Periodic Table of
Modern Elements. There are two systems used in group numbering,
namely the American system and the IUPAC system.

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C O N T E N T, P E R I O D , A N D R E L AT I V E
MASS
Content
On the periodic table the elements are divided into two,
namely the main group or group A and the transition group
or group B.
Golongan Nama Khusus Unsur-unsur

IA 1 Alkali Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, dan Fr

IIA 2 Alkali tanah Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, dan Ra

IIIA 13 Boron B, Al, Ga, ln, dan TI

IVA 14 Karbon C, Si, Ge, Sn, dan Pb

VA 15 Nitrogen N, P, As, Sb, dan Bi

VIA 16 Oksigen O, S, Se, Te, dan Po

VIIA 17 Halogen F, Cl, Br, I, dan At

VIIIA 18 Gas mulia He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn


Atomic number and mass
number
Period
The periodic table consists The atomic number and mass number can
be represented as follows.
of 7 periods and two
Description:
separate elements, namely
X = Atomic symbol
lanthanides and actinides. Z = Atomic number
A = Mass number
Relative atomic mass and relative
molecular mass

Relative Atomic Mass (Ar) Relative Molecular Mass (Mr)


The relative atomic mass is the Mass Relative molecules are
comparisons between the mass of 1
mass of an atom in atomic mass
compound molecule with 1/12 mass 1
units (SMA) or the ratio between the carbon atom 12. Calculating relative
mass of 1 atom with 1/12 mass of 1 molecular mass by summing the
carbon atom 12. relative atomic mass of its constituent.

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Charateristics Of Elemets

The elements found in nature


are metal, non metal and Metals
Charateristics of metals are can conduct
semi metal.
electricity, conduct heat, and have high
melting points.
Non metals
On the periodic table of elements, non-
metallic elements are located on the
right starting from group IVA to class Semi Metal
VIIIA. In groups IVA, VA, and VIA only Charateristics of semi metal which
part of the elements are non-metal. enter the charateristics of metal
While groups VIIA and VIIIA, all elements and which enter into non-
elements are non-metal metal elements. 14
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
OF HYDROGEN AND MAIN
GROUP
Hydrogen Group V A Group VI A

Group I A Group IV A Group VII A

Group II A Group III A Group VIII A

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There is no suitable place for hydrogen elements in the periodic
table. Hydrogen is placed in the IA group, it should not be thought
that hydrogen is a member of that group.

HYDROGEN

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GROUP I A
Flame Color of Alkali Metal Elements
K Rb
Trait Li Na Cs

Melting Point 181 97,8 63,6 38,9 28,4


(oC)
Boiling Point 1347 883 774 688 678
(oC)
Density (g/cm3) 0,53 0,97 0,86 1,53 1,88

Element Less Reactive Element flame color


Litium Red orange
Li ↓
Na ↓ Natrium golden yellow
K ↓
Kalium Purple/violet
Rb ↓
Cs ↓ Rubidium Red
More Reactive Cesium Blue

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GROUP II A
Physical and Chemical Properties Group II A Elements (Alkaline Soil)
Ca Sr
Trait Be Mg Ba
Melting Point (oC) 1278 649 839 769 725

Boiling Point (oC) 2970 1090 1484 1384 1640

Density (g/cm3) 1,85 1,74 1,54 2,6 3,51


Flame color Alkali Soil Metal Element
Electronegativity 1,5 1,2 1,0 1,0 0,9
Element Flame Colour

Element Less Reactive Berilium White

Be ↓ Magnesium bright white

Mg ↓ Kalsium Red brick


Ca ↓ Stronsium Crimson Red
Sr ↓ Barium green apple
Ba ↓

More Reactive
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GROUP III A
The first member of group IIIA is boron metalloid.
The rest is metal. Baron does not support binary
ionic compounds and is not reactive to oxygen
and air gases. Aluminum become aluminum
oxide, when left in the air. The aluminum element
has an electron configuration of 2, 8, 3. Because
it has 3 valence electrons, aluminum can form a
+3 cation.

Physical and Chemical Properties of


Aluminum Elements
Electronegativity
Melting Boiling Density
Point (oC) Point(oC) (g/cm3)

660 2450 2,70 1,6


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GROUP IV A
The first member of group IV A carbon is a
non-metal and the next two members,
silicon and germanium are metalloids. The
metal elements of this group do not react
with water, but react with acid.

Carbon forms crystals such as graphite and


diamond. There are also non-crystals or
called amorphous. Graphite is soft, shiny
black with a layered structure and can
conduct electricity (conductor). Diamond is
the hardest, colorless and transparent
covalent bonded to light. But diamond
cannot deliver an electric current (insulator).

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GROUP V
Group VA nitrogen and phosphorus are non-
At room temperature, nitrogen is relatively less
metals, arsenic and antimony are metalloids,
reactive because the bond is strong. However, at
and bismuth is metal
high temperatures netrodene reacts with other
elements such as with oxygen to produce NO.
The nitrogen element has an electron oxygen forms the O2 diatom molecule and its
configuration of 2, 5. allotrope form is ozone (O3).

Physical and Chemical Properties of Nitrogen


Elements
Trait N
Melting Point (oC) -210
Boiling Point (oC) -196
Density (g/cm3) 0,0013
Electronegativity 3,0
Electron affinity (kJ/mol) 0,70
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GROUP VI A
Each first member of group 6A (Oxygen, Oxygen is a colorless gas, tasteless and in the form
sulfur and selenium) is a non-metal and the of gas in normal conditions. Oxygen molecules are
last two members (tellurium and polonium) reactive gases and can react with many substances.
are metalloids. These group elements, Generally produces oxide. Almost all metals react
especially oxygen, form a large number of with oxygen to form metal oxides. The stable state of
molecular compounds with non-metals. sulfur is a form of rombik like a yellow crown, as
shown below

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GROUP VII A
Physical and Chemical Properties of Halogen
Elements
The elements that occupy the VII A group are
Trait F Cl Br I At
called halogen elements, which means salt
Melting Point (oC) -220 -101 -7 114 -
forming. Halogen elements are very reactive so
Boiling Point (oC) -188 -35 -59 184 -
that in nature they have never been found in the
Density (g/cm3) 0,0017 0,0032 3,12 4,93 -
state of their atoms, but they form compounds
Electronegativity 4,0 3,0 2,8 2,5 2,2
with various elements and similar elements.
Electron affinity -328 -349 -325 -2,95 270
All the halogen elements are present as (kJ/mol)
diatomic molecules, namely F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2.
Element Less Reactive
F ↓
Cl ↓
Br ↓
I ↓
At ↓
More Reactive

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GROUP VIII A
All noble gases are present as monatomic species, because the full valence electron
configuration (8 electrons) then the noble gas elements are stable. The stability of these
elements raises the view among scientists that noble gas elements are difficult to form
compounds so that the noble gas gets the inert gas name.

Ionization energy of noble gaseous elements The Physical Properties of Elemental Gas Elements

Ar Kr Xe Rn physical Ar Kr Xe Rn
Noble Gas He Ne He Ne
properties
Density (g/cm3) 0,18 0,90 1,80 3,75 5,80 10,0
Energi ionisasi 237 2088 1527 135 1176 1042
(kJ/mol) 7 6
Boiling Point (oC) -269 -246 -186 -153 -108 -6,2
Melting point (oC) -272 -249 -189 -157 -112 -71

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Atomic Radius

Getting bigger
Getting smaller
Ionization Energy

Energy Greater

S
M
A
L
L
E
R
Electron Affinity

Greater

S
M
A
L
L
E
R
Electronegativity

Greater

S
M
A
L
L
E
R
Misconceptions of the
Periodic Table
20.30% of students consider
the size of an atom to be
determined by the number of
The true concept of the
protons, the more the number
determinants of atomic size is the
of protons the greater the size
size and radius of an atom
of the atom
determined by the combination of
the nucleus's attraction to electrons
and the repulsive force between
electrons
The correct concept of the 38.35% of students assume that
influence of temperature is that due to heating, the atom gets
temperature only affects the
additional heat and expands
distance between particles
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