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Siemens Medical Solutions

Introduction to Roentgen Systems


and
Diagnostic X-ray
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Topics to be covered

 What is X-ray?
 Radiation Safety
 The X-ray Tube (generation of radiation).
 Image Receptors.
 Basic Imaging Principles.
 Room Components.
 Basics of Diagnostic Imaging.
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What is X-Ray?

 Discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen

 An invisible energy that can


penetrate solid objects.

 It’s ability to penetrate objects


depends on the object’s density.

 X-rays produce a shadow much


like visible light.

 This shadow captured on film is


called a radiograph.
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How do X-rays work?

 X-rays are emitted from an x-ray tube in precisely


measured doses.

 However radiation can cause damage to the human body if


it is emitted in uncontrolled quantities - Thus, the Siemens’
emphasis on lowest radiation dose!!
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Important Safety Measures

 Time: Keep the time spent in radiation areas to an absolute minimum.

 Distance: Keep as much distance between you and the source as


possible. This is very important because when the distance is doubled,
radiation exposure is reduced by a factor of 4.

 Shielding: Always use lead aprons or lead partitions when in a radiation


area.
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Basic Imaging Principle

 Visible light produces a


shadow of the perimeter of a
solid object.

 X-rays penetrate the soft


tissue around the bone and
the shadow is that of the skull.

 This shadow is captured on


film.
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The X-ray Tube

 How are X-rays generated?

 When fast moving electrons


collide with matter in any form,
X-rays are produced

 This is the function of the X-


ray tube
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Effect of contrast medium on x-ray absorption.

 Contrast media are


substances which differ in
density and atomic number
from the tissues surrounding
them.

 Blood vessels associated with


the kidney are easily seen.

 Renal arteriogram.
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Collimation

 The primary beam should be


confined to the size and shape
that will just cover the region
of diagnostic interest.

 PBL

 ACSS
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Grids

 The primary radiation from the


focal spot passes through the
grid, but the scatter radiation
from the object hits the strips
at various angles and is
absorbed. This produces a
sharper image.
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Effects of the Grid


Non-grid Grid
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Bucky

 A device comprised of a grid and the mechanism to move it


is called a Bucky.

 Multix
 Vertix
 Sireskop
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Tomography

 A technique which provides an


image of any selected plane
through the body, while
blurring out images of
structures that lie above and
below that plane.
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Image Intensifiers

 Input phosphor - converts X-ray to


visible-light.
 Photocathode - gives off electrons
in proportion to the intensity of the
light .
 Electron optics - focus the
electrons onto an output phosphor
which is much smaller than the
input.
 Anode - used to accelerate the
electrons to the output phosphor
where considerably brighter
visible-light is created.
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SDM Selective Dominant Measurement

 Digital phototiming which


expands the feature of digital
imaging.
 Eliminates repeat exposures
by providing an optimum
technique the first time.
 Calculates exposure
technique during fluoro.
 Siemens Exclusive
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Sireskop SX
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Typical Exams

 Esophagram: Barium
swallow to diagnose a hiatul
hernia or narrowing of the
esophagus.

 Upper GI: Time dependent


barium swallow to diagnose
stomach abnormalities and
small intestines.
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Typical Exams

 Barium Enema: Diagnostic


examination to detect
abnormalities in the lower
intestine and colon.

Diverticulitis

Colon Cancer
Questions