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GRAVITY & WEIGHT

 GRAVITY is the force of attraction


that exists between any two objects
that have mass.

 The force of gravity depends on


the mass of the objects
and distance between them.
 Weight is a force, like the push of your hand is force,
and is measured in Newtons.

 The force of gravity causes all objects near Earth's


surface to fall with an acceleration of 9.8 m/s2.

 Your weight on Earth is the gravitational force


between you and Earth.
 How are weight an mass different?

 Weight is a force, like the push of your hand is a


force, and is measured in Newtons.

 Mass is the amount of matter in an object, and doesn't


depend on location.

 Weight will vary with location, but mass will remain


constant.
 The more mass an object has, the more gravity it has
and the stronger it pulls on other.

 The weight of an object is a measure on how hard


gravity pulls on it.

 The harder gravity pulls on an object, the more the


object weighs.
Acceleration due to gravity is the uniform acceleration
caused by gravitational force.

Force=Weight, then for a body of mass falling with the


acceleration due to gravity , Weight is mathematically
expressed,

W= mg
THIRD LAW:LAW OF INTERACTION
• For every action force, there is an equal and opposite
reaction force.

• In equation: FA on B= -FB on A
• The action and reaction forces occur at exactly the
same time!
• “EQUAL”

• In Newton's Third Law, “equal” means: Equal in


MAGNITUDE (strength).

• The action and the reaction have exactly the


same MAGNITUDE.
“OPPOSITE'
• In Newton's Third Law, “opposite” means: OPPOSITE
DIRECTION.

• Example:
– The baseball forces the bat to the left (an action); the bat
forces the ball to the right (the reaction)
s\
• Cite three examples where action and reaction forces
occur. Explain each example in terms of Newton's
Third Law of Motion.
FRICTION ON SOLIDS

• What is Friction?
– is the resistance to motion of one object
moving relative to another.
– it is caused by interlocking of the bumps and
irregularities on the surfaces of objects in
contact.
KINDS OF FRICTION
• STATIC FRICTION (fs)
– for bodies at rest. If there is no relative motion between
two bodies.
– it is a force that keeps an object at rest.

• KINETIC FRICTION (fk)


– for bodies in sliding motion. It is the type of friction that
opposes sliding motion.
– it is a force that acts between moving surfaces.
• ROLLING FRICTION (fr)
– for bodies in rolling motion. Rollers or wheels are
used to minimize friction between contact surfaces.
– it is the weakest friction force.
– it is the resistive force that slows down the motion
of a rolling ball or wheel.
PROPERTIES OF FRICTION
• The frictional force is parallel to the contact surface.
• For a given pair of surfaces, frictional force is
proportional to the normal force between the two
surfaces.
• Friction is approximately independent of the surface area
contact between the two bodies.
• The direction of friction is always opposite to the
direction of the force.
• The magnitude of friction depends on the nature of the
materials and the condition of the surface in contact
(rough, smooth, dry, wet)
Newton's 2nd Law of Motion in Uniform Circular Motion

• Any motion in a curved path represents accelerated


motion, and requires a force directed toward the
center of curvature of the path. This force is called
the centripetal force which means "center seeking"
force.

• Centripetal acceleration is the acceleration of an


object moving in a circle.
• Centrifugal force-This is force in moving object in circular
path. And this force is force pulling object outside from
center of circle.
Centripetal Force Centrifugal Force

TOWARD THE CENTER AWAY FROM THE CENTER


CENTRIPETAL FORCE CENTRIFUGAL FORCE
Meaning The force that keeps an object Tendency of an object
moving with a uniform speed following a curved path to fly
along a circular path. away from the center of
curvature. Might be described
as “lack of centripetal force.”

Direction Along the radius of the circle, Along the radius of the circle,
from the object towards the from the center towards the
center. object.

Example Satellite orbiting a planet Mud flying off a tire; children


Roller Coaster pushed out on a roundabout.
Washing machine

Is it a real force? Yes; centripetal force keeps No; centrifugal force is the
the object from "flying out". inertia of motion.
Objectives
• Identifying situations in which work is
done and in which no work is done.
• Describing how work is related to power
and energy.
• Differentiating potential and kinetic
energy.
• Relating speed and position of object to the
amount of energy possessed by a body.
WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
• In physics, work is defined as a force causing the
movement—or displacement—of an object.
WORK
• This is the displacement of an object due to force.
• How much work is done depends on the distance the
object is moved.

• Equation: W= Fd
Three Important Things to Know:
1. The object must move over some distance in order
for work to be done.
2. The force and the distance of movement must be in
the same direction.
3. The force must be constant.

• The units we use for work are joules (J), named for
James Prescott Joule.
Cases where Work is done:
Cases where No Work is done:
• Calculating Work

• Work= Force x displacement


• W= Fd

• W= Work
• F= Force
• d= displacemet
• Units for Work

• Joule(J)= SI unit for work

• 1J= 1N∙m= 1kg∙m2/s2


• 1 erg= 1 dyne∙cm
• 1J= 1x107 ergs
Work= Force.distance
F F
θ= 0°
d

F θ= 180°
d d
Example
• How much work was done when you lift your 10 Newton
bag from the ground floor to the second floor of your
school building which is 6 meters high.
• Find: Work Solution:
• Given: Wbag= 10N W= Fd
d=6m = (10N)(6m)
= 60Joules
Sample Problem:
• A box is dragged horizontally across a floor by a 100
N force acting parallel to the floor. What is the work
done by the force in moving it through a distance of 8
m?
»W= Fd
• Given: F= 100N Solution: W= (100N)(8m)
d= 8m 800 J
• A box is dragged across a floor by a 100N force
directed 60o above the horizontal. How much work does
the force do in pulling the object 8m?

»Given: F= 100N W= F cosθ d


» θ= 60° = (100 cos 60°) (8m)
» d= 8m = (50) (8)
» = 400J
ENERGY
• Energy is the capacity to do work.

• Energy exist in different forms:


– Heat energy, Thermal energy, mechanical energy, nuclear
energy, electromagnetic energy and electrical energy.
• Chemical Energy referred
to the energy stored in the
chemical bonds of atoms
and molecules.
Heat Energy is the form of
energy released by moving
particles like atoms and
molecules.
• Mechanical Energy is the
energy possessed by
moving objects like
machines.
• Nuclear Energy is energy
istored in the nuclei of
atoms. It is involved when
nuclear fission or fusion
occurs.
• Electrical Energy is
associated with the
movements of electrical
charges.
ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS
 Energy transformation
occurs if energy changes
from one form to another.
 During energy
transformation the total
amount of energy
remains the same.
KINETIC ENERGY AND POTENTIAL
ENERGY
Kinetic Energy
• It is the energy an object
does due to motion.

Example:
• A moving bowling ball has
energy that causes the pins
to fall.
The sky diver has kinetic A ball kicked by a football
energy. player has a kinetic energy.
MASS, SPEED AND KINETIC ENERGY
• All moving objects have kinetic energy.

• Not all moving objects have the same amount of kinetic


energy.

• The amount of kinetic energy an object has depends on


the mass and the speed of the object.
Imagine those two rocks are rolling down the hillside with the
same speed.
Which one will have more kinetic energy?

Which one will cause more damage if they hit something at the
bottom?
• Kinetic energy depends on speed. The faster object has
more speed and has more kinetic energy.
Transferring Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy can be transferred from one
object to another when they collide.

• The bowling ball does not touch all the


pins but it can knock them down with one
roll.
• The bowling ball transfer kinetic energy to
few pins.
• The pins will transfer this kinetic energy to
each other and knock them down.
POWER
• Power is the rate at which work is done. It is the work/time
ratio. Mathematically, it is computed using the following
equation.

• Power = Work / time or P = W / t

• The standard metric unit of power is the Watt.


EXAMPLE
• Find the power of the man who pushes the box 8m with a
force of 15N in a 6seconds.
• Find: Work • Find: Power

• Work= Fd • Power= Work/time


= (15N)(8m) = 120 Joule/6 s
= 120 Joule = 20 watt
1. How much power is required to do 200 joules of work in 4
seconds?

2. A boy of 450 N of weight climbs a wood steps with a


lenght of 3 m. The boy takes 6 seconds to get the end of
the steps. What is the power done by the boy on this
activity!
SOUND
OBJECTIVES:
Infer how the movement of particles of an object affects
the speed of sound through it.

Describe the effect of temperature to speed of sound


through fair testing.

Identify factors that affect the speed and transmission of


sound.
What is Sound?
a vibration that typically
propagates as an audible
wave of pressure,
through a transmission
medium such as a gas,
liquid or solid.
Examples of Transverse Wave
Examples of Longitudinal Wave
OBJECTIVES
• Demonstrate the existence of the color components
of visible light using a prism or diffraction grating

• Describe the hierarchy of colors in relation to


energy

• Differentiate red as the least bent and violet the


most bent according to their wavelengths or
frequencies
VISIBLE LIGHT SPECTRUM
• The visible light spectrum is the section of the
electromagnetic radiation spectrum that is visible to the
human eye.

• James Clerk Maxwell


– Scottish mathematician and physicist, discovered that the
formation of electromagnetic waves is due to the oscillation or
vibration of electric and magnetic fields.
Wavelength and Color Spectrum Chart
• The wavelength (which is related to frequency and
energy) of the light determines the perceived color.
• Color is the frequency of visible light, and it ranges from
430 trillion Hertz (which is red) to 750 trillion Hertz (which
is violet).
How White Light is Split Into a Rainbow of
Colors
• White light is a mixture of different colors of light.

• Refraction
– the change in direction of a wave passing from one medium to
another caused by its change in speed.
– the bending of light (it also happens with sound, water and
other waves) as it passes from one transparent substance into
another.
The amount of bending depends on two
things:
• Change in speed – if a substance causes the light to
speed up or slow down more, it will refract (bend) more.

• Angle of the incident ray – if the light is entering the


substance at a greater angle, the amount of refraction will
also be more noticeable. On the other hand, if the light is
entering the new substance from straight on (at 90° to the
surface), the light will still slow down, but it won’t change
direction at all.
HEAT
AND
TEMPERATURE
HEAT
– the energy that is transferred from one body to another due to
temperature difference.
– the total kinetic energy of all molecules.
– the energy in transit, moving from a body of a higher
temperature to one of lower temperature.
– Its measurement can be done in energy units, i.e. calorie or
joules.
How would you distinguish heat from
temperature?
–Heat is the total enegy of all the molecular
motion inside an object, while temperature is
a measure of the average kinetic energy of
the vibrating molecules of the body.
What are the three types of Heat Energy
Transfer?
• Conduction: Heat transfer between molecules which are
in direct contact with each other, without the movement of
particles.
• Convection: The transfer of heat that takes place due to
the movement of particles from one place to another is
convection.
• Radiation: When the heat is transferred through a medium
or vacuum, wherein space in between, is not heated up.
How are current and charge related?

–Current is the flow of charge through a


certain material. The amount of
electrical charge that moves in an
electrical circuit depends on the current
flow and how long it flow.
CIRCUIT CONNECTION ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Series  enables the addition of more  electrical appliances cannot be
power devices like batteries turned off individually
and dry cells, thus increases
the force of the load  electrical appliances do not get
the sam amount of voltage as
 does not overheat easily that of the source

 all components connected  the more components there are


carry the same amount of in the circuit, the greater is the
current resistance of the circuit
Parallel  electrical appliances receives  requires the use of more wires
the same amount of voltage as
that of the source  has very complex design

 allows for additional  flow of current is split


components

 when one component fails, the


other components are not
affected
ELECTRICAL
ENERGY AND
POWER
What is the difference between electrical
power and electrical energy?
–Electrical power is the rate at which a
certain electrical device delivers electrical
energy expresses as electrical energy used
over time. Electrical energy can be obtained
by multiplying the electric power by time.