´ENGLISH TASKµ Conjunctions

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CONJUNCTIONS

WHAT IS CONJUNCTIONS? Conjunctions are words that are used to connect words or a group or words or sentences. e. I went out because the sun was shining. or we could go to the park. He neither finished his homework nor studied for the test. . We could go to the library.g.

2. Coordinate Cunjonctions Coorelative Cunjonctions Subordinate Cunjonctions Connecting Adverbs Parallel Construction . TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS 3.1. 5. 4.

COORDINATE CUNJONCTIONS Coordinate conjunctions are used to join two similar grammatical constructions. for instance. . two words. two phrases or two clauses.

.g.e. My friend and I will attend the meeting. Austria is famous for the beauty of its landscape and the hospitality of its people. the two phrases the beauty of its landscape and the hospitality of its people. The sun rose and the birds began to sing. the coordinate conjunction and is used to join the two words friend and I. and the two clauses the sun rose and the birds began to sing. In these examples.

yet the air is cool. Did you go out or stay at home? I did not see it. the two coordinate clauses may be separated by a comma or semicolon. nor did they. It should also be noted that when a coordinate conjunction joins two verbs which do not have the same subject. They tried but did not succeed. .and: in addition but: however or: alternatively nor: and neither yet: however She tried and succeeded. The sun is warm. For instance. in order to make the meaning clear. in the example she tried and succeeded. the subject need not be repeated. when a coordinate conjunction joins two verbs which have the same subject. As illustrated above. the pronoun she acts as the subject for both the verb tried and the verb succeeded.

FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE CORRECT COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS CHOSEN FROM THE PAIRS GIVEN IN BRACKETS. Do you know his address _________ telephone number? (but. or) 5. (and. ___ I DO NOT HAVE TIME. (or. nor) . NOR) I WOULD LIKE TO COME. yet) 2. BUT I DO NOT HAVE TIME. _________ have they. She was not in the back yard. 1. He has not arrived yet. yet) 4. _________ it was still light outside. nor) 3. I opened the door _________ looked out. FOR EXAMPLE: I WOULD LIKE TO COME. The sun had set. AND TO THE PRESENCE OF INVERTED WORD ORDER. (BUT. _________ was she upstairs. (or. (and.EXERCISE 1 PAYING ATTENTION TO THE MEANINGS OF THE SENTENCES.

COORELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs. in order to show the relationship between the ideas expressed in different parts of a sentence. .

G. E. EITHER YOU SHOULD STUDY HARDER.. . OR YOU SHOULD TAKE A DIFFERENT COURSE. THE EXPRESSION EITHER .IN THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLE.. OR IS USED TO INDICATE THAT THE IDEAS EXPRESSED IN THE TWO CLAUSES REPRESENT TWO ALTERNATIVE CHOICES OF ACTION.

when he was interrupted. and He is both intelligent and good-natured.. but also hard-working. if ..... neither .. nor He is neither rich nor famous. then what happened is not surprising. she has many relatives.. no sooner .. and what with all her aunts.. hardly .. what with . both .. than the bus came. either ... but also She is not only clever. uncles and cousins.... or Have you decided whether you will come or not? .. scarcely .. then If that is true. not only . rather .. whether . or I will either go for a walk or read a book... when He had hardly begun to work. when Scarcely had we left home. when it started to rain.. than I would rather go swimming than go to the library. than No sooner had I reached the corner.

FOR EXAMPLE: WE SHOULD EITHER WALK QUICKLY __ TAKE THE BUS. _________ I remembered where I was. No sooner had I opened my eyes. ___________ the first day of Spring. 8. 5. . WE SHOULD EITHER WALK QUICKLY OR TAKE THE BUS. 7. BUT ALSO. OR. 1. 3. 6. AS APPROPRIATE. THAN. __________ you should have no difficulty. What with one thing _________ another. 4. _________ the answer leapt to my mind. Hardly had I finished reading over the problem.EXERCISE 2 PAYING ATTENTION TO THE EXPRESSIONS USED IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE WORDS AND. 9. I have both respect _________ admiration for them. It was not only a beautiful day. THEN AND WHEN. It will rain either today _________ tomorrow. He could not decide whether to tell the truth _________ keep silent. If you follow the instructions. it was very late by the time we left the house. NOR. 2. He is neither proud _________ condescending.

wherever and why. whatever. .SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS Subordinate clauses may begin with relative pronouns such as that. what. who and whom. as well as with words such as how. when. which. where.

the subordinate conjunctions are printed in bold type.IN THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES. I WONDER HOW HE DID THAT. COULD BE SEEN FOR MILES. E. Because it was cold. .G. THE SUBORDINATE CLAUSES ARE UNDERLINED. subordinate clauses may also begin with words which are commonly referred to as subordinate conjunctions. In addition.g. e. In the following examples. Let us wait until the rain stops. I wore my winter coat. THE HOUSE. WHICH STOOD ON A HILL.

because: He is happy. After 1. because we arrived early. later in time: After the train left. If 1. because: As he is my friend. when: We watched as the plane took off. . for the reason that: We had to wait. Before 1. we will see her. Because 1. I will help him. for he enjoys his work. on condition that: If she is here. earlier than: I arrived before the stores were open. we did not feel tired. For 1. for. 2. we went home. in spite of the fact that: Although it was after midnight. Although or though 1.THE SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS BELOW ARE ACCOMPANIED BY THEIR MEANINGS AND EXAMPLES OF USE As 1.

g. consequently: It was raining. so we did not go out. 2. except when. providing you are careful Since 1. . you can help me. I am saving money so that I can buy a bicycle. we cannot succeed. what will you do? Than 1. Unless 1. in order that: I am saving money so I can buy a bicycle.Lest 1. from a past time: I have been here since the sun rose. Providing or provided 1. Note: When used with the meaning in order that. if not: Unless he helps us. Note the use of the Subjunctive Mood in the clause with lest. Supposing 1. for fear that: I watched closely. on condition that: All will be well. because: Since you are here. so is usually followed by that in formal English. 2. lest he make a mistake. used in comparisons: He is taller than you are. as. So or so that 1. if: Supposing that happens. e.

at the time when: While it was snowing. up to the time when: I will wait until I hear from you. it is open to everyone. on the other hand: He is rich. while his friend is poor. . because: Whereas this is a public building. 2. if: As long as we cooperate. immediately when: Write to me as soon as you can. I will do my best. while: He has lived there as long as I have known him. As long as 1. As soon as 1. we can finish the work easily. Whereas 1. we played cards. on the other hand: He is short. Whether 1. in a similar way: She talks as if she knows everything. As if 1. if: I do not know whether she was invited.Until or till 1. whereas you are tall. While 1. 2. 2. although: While I am not an expert. 3.

because of a possibility: Take a sweater in case it gets cold. or else you may have an accident. In case 1.As though 1. Or else 1. Even if 1. So as to 1. in a similar way: It looks as though there will be a storm. in order to: I hurried so as to be on time. in spite of a possibility: I am going out even if it rains. otherwise: Please be careful. .

than) 4. He kept reading ___________ he fell asleep. in case) 2. 1. We recognized her at once. FOR EXAMPLE: I WENT FOR A WALK _______ THE SUN WAS SHINING. (After. (as if. PAYING ATTENTION TO THE MEANINGS OF THE SENTENCES. she became a teacher. Than) 6. It looks ____________ the train will be late. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE CORRECT SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS OR SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS CHOSEN FROM THE PAIRS GIVEN IN BRACKETS. (BECAUSE. The moon will rise ____________ the sun sets.EXERCISE 3. (while. OTHERWISE) I WENT FOR A WALK BECAUSE THE SUN WAS SHINING. ____________ we had not seen her for years. as though) 5. (although. We will not go skiing ____________ the weather is good. ____________ she got her degree. until) 3. (for. (as soon as. unless) .

since) 10. ____________ you read this book. We packed a lunch. ____________ I have a great deal of work to do. than) 11. (lest. you would be sure to enjoy it. (providing. Because) 18. What shall we do ____________ it rains? (or else. so) 14. ____________ we knew we would soon be hungry. than) 17. Until) 13. (If. supposing) 12. you would not believe me. ____________ I told the truth. ____________ he is very busy. for) 16. (in case. I studied more ____________ he did. I must leave now. They have known her ___________ she was a child. (Or else. (as. ____________ he left. he is seldom at home. For) 8. ____________ the weather is fine.7. (than. I will join you. or else) . whereas) 15. (until. ___________ we will be late. (so that. he made sure he had his keys with him. We must hurry. (Before. So that) 9. (Even if. ____________ we could hear everything. The door was open.

such as after. since and until may function either as prepositions or subordinate conjunctions. This is illustrated in the table below. Differing Prepositions and Conjunctions Preposition because of despite during like Conjunction because although while as if Meaning for this reason in spite of this at the time when in a similar way .Certain words. in order to express similar meanings. However it should be noted that in some cases different words must be used as prepositions and subordinate conjunctions. before.

Conjunction: It looks as if it will rain. the objects of the prepositions. we enjoyed ourselves. and the verbs of the subordinate clauses are printed in bold type. Conjunction: Although it rained. Conjunction: We stayed indoors while the storm raged.In the following examples. we enjoyed ourselves. Preposition: Despite the rain. . Preposition: It looks like rain. Conjunction: They were upset because they were delayed. Preposition: They were upset because of the delay. Preposition: We stayed indoors during the storm.

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