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Training Center Guidelines

• Phone Number (313) 592-7711


• First Aid Available
• Pay Phones Located by the Lobby
• Safety in the Overhaul Lab
• Smoking Room Available
• Name Tags
• Parking Permits

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Course Outline
• Introductions
• Basic Engine Operating Principles
• Engine Components
• Overhaul Procedures
• System Overview
– Lube
– Air
– Coolant
– Fuel
• DDEC Overview
• Mechanical Troubleshooting
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Detroit Diesel Guild

• Open to Distributors and Fleets and Dealers


• Initial Test, Must Score 80% or Higher to Pass
• Two Yearly sustaining Exams to Keep
Certification
• Merchandise to choose from depending on
Exam Score.

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Series 60
Development History
• 1980 - “Clean Sheet” Design Project Start
• Developed To Meet Specific Market Criteria
» Size
» Weight
» Cost
» Reliability
» Durability
» Fuel Economy
» Horsepower
» Torque
» Exhaust Emissions
» Noise

• 1987 Series 60 Production Start


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Series 60

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Series 60

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Series 50

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Series 50/60
Service Information

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Basic Engine
Operating Principles
ENERGY CHANGES IN A DIESEL ENGINE

Heat
Chemical

Rotary
Linear
Mechanical
Mechanical
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COMBUSTION

AIR + FUEL + IGNITION

EQUALS

POWER
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Heat Balance

Fuel
Exhaust
30-35%
Energy
100%
Coolant &
Radiation
30-35%

Engine
Horsepower
30-35%

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Combustion Needs

• Air from the Intake Manifold


• Fuel atomized by the Injector
• Ignition created by the compression of air in
the cylinder

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Four Stroke Cycle

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Four Stroke Cycle (Continued)

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Serial and Model Number

• Model Number
• Serial Number
• Time And Date

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Serial and Model Number

• Series 50 8.5L
– 6047TK60
• Series 60 11.1L
– 6067EK28
• Series 60 12.7L Standard
– 6067TK28
• Series 60 12.7L Premium
– 6067PK28
• Series 60 14L
– 6067HK28
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Model Number Changes
For 1999
6067BK28
• 6= Series 50/60
• 06= Number of cylinders
• 7= Automotive
• B = Premium 12L (1999)
• M = Standard 12L (1999)
• L = 11L (1999)
• H = 14L (1999)
• K= DDEC III/IV
• 28= 1991 or later coach

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Valve Cover Information

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GENERAL CONSTRUCTION
& SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL CONSTRUCTION
& SPECIFICATIONS
Differences Between
11.1L and 12.7L

– 10/11 Plate Oil Cooler


– Injector Family
– Camshaft profile (Injector Lobe)
– Crankshaft
– Connecting Rod
– Turbo
– Jacobs Engine Brake
– Crank Gear

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14 Liter Difference
550 HP @1850Lbs/Ft

6067HK28
– Block Width
– Injector Family
– Crankshaft
– Connecting Rod
– Piston
– Vibration Damper
– Turbo
– Liner
– Crankshaft Pulley
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Series 60 Top View

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Series 60 Front/Rear View

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Right Side Series 60 Block

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Series 60 Left Side

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Series 50 Front View

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Right Side
Series 50 Block

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Series 50 Left Side

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Main Bearing View 12.7L

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Series 60 Head Top View

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Series 50
Head Top View

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Head Components

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Valve Components

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Intake / Exhaust Valves

• Chrome Exhaust Valve (MY2K)


• Face Change on Valves(MY2K)

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Series 50/60
Camshafts

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Camshaft Components

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Camshaft Components

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Rocker Arm Assembly

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Exhaust / Intake
Rocker Arms

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Injector Rocker Arm

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Series 50 Crankshaft

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Series 60 Crankshafts

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Series 50/60
Crankshaft Bearings

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Vibration Damper

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Liner

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Top Liner Cooling (TLC)
– Reduces Fire Ring Temperature
– Reduces Ring and Liner Wear
– Extends Ring Life
– Reduces Maintenance Costs
– Maximizes Life to Overhaul
LI NE R COOLI NG
CHANNEL

COOLI NG
CHANNEL
INLE T NOT CH COOLI NG
IN BL OCK CHANNEL
E XIT HOLE

MAI N CO OLANT
S TRE AM

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Block Bore Liner

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Liner Seals

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Weep Hole/Plug

Weep Hole

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Series 50/60 Piston

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Series 50/60 Piston
Pin and Bushings

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Connecting Rod

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Piston Ring Comparison

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Series 60
Steel Forged Piston

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Series 60
Steel Forged Piston

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Connecting Rod

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Timing Marks

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Cam Gear/ Bolt

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Thrust Plate (Variations)

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Thrust Plate (Variations)

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Thrust Plate (Variations)

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Idler Gear / Retaining Hub

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Bull Gear Assembly

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Bull Gear

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Bull Gear Alignment

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Crank Gear 12.7/S50

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Crank Gear 11.1L

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Pulse Wheel/Timing Wheel

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Series 50 Balance
Shaft Assembly

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Series 50 Balance
Shaft Assembly

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Series 50 Balance
Shaft Assembly

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Oil Pump

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Oil Pump

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Oil Pump Components

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Engine Mount & Pulley

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Accessory Drive

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Accessory Drive

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Front Seal

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Rear Seal

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Flywheel Housing

• Bolt Change to
• 14mm for 1998

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Flywheel/Scuffplate

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Air Compressor

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Water Pump

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Water Pump

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Oil Cooler

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Oil Cooler Adapter

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Exhaust Manifold

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Thermostat Housing

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Wastegated Turbocharger

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Wastegated Turbocharger

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Oil Filters

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Intake Manifold

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Electronic Control Module
(ECM)

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DDEC/Sensor Location

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Fuel Filters

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Fuel Injector

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Fuel Injector

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Fuel Injector

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Overhaul/Safety Precautions

• Always Wear Safety Glasses in Lab


• Mop Floor when needed while working on engine
and around Engine at end of each day
• Put all tools and materials back at the end of
each class

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OVERHAUL
OVERHAUL INSPECTION
Block Flatness

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ID size of Main Journal

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Liner Bore ID size

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Liner Protrusion

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Crankshaft Runout

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Crankshaft End Play

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Camshaft Flatness Check

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Camshaft Runout

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Camshaft End Play

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Plasti-Gage

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Gearlash

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Injector Tube
Replacement

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THE SYSTEMS
FUEL SYSTEM
Fuel System

• Engine Requirements
• Fuel Filters/Fuel Pro 380
• Fuel Pump
• Cold Plate(Optional)
• Restrictive Fitting
• Fuel Injectors

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Fuel System schematic
Series 60

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Fuel System schematic
Series 50

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Fuel Filters

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Positive Displacement Fuel Pump

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Fuel Pump

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Restrictive Fittings

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Cold Plate

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Fuel Pro 380

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Fuel Injector

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Fuel Injector

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Fuel Injector

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Voltage in Series 50/60
Rocker Arm Injector
Solenoid
Cam
Animation
Poppet
Valve
Plunger

Fuel out

Fuel in

Needle Valve
Injector Calibration
Codes
• DDEC II No Calibration Codes
• DDEC III Calibration Codes From 00-99

Part Number

Calibration Code
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FUEL SYSTEM
TROUBLESHOOTING
Fuel System Troubleshooting
Low Power
Inspect the Following

• Fuel Supply
• Restricted Filters
• Obstructed Fuel Lines
• Fuel Pump
• Low Temperature
• Fuel Blend
• Fuel Pressure
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Fuel System
Troubleshooting Tools
• Fuel Priming Pump
• Fuel Pressure Gage
• Graduated Bucket
• Stop Watch
• Pyrometer
• Pump Suction
• Cylinder Cut-Out/ Injector Response Times

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Priming

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Fuel Pump Pressure

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Fuel Spill Back

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Cylinder Cut-Out

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Injector Response Times

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Injector Cycle Terminology

IRT Injector Response Time - Length of Time (ms)


required to close the Control Valve

PW Pulse Width - Degrees of Crankshaft Rotation


when Fuel is Injected

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AIR SYSTEM
Series 60 Air Intake

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Series 50 Air Intake

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Air System

• Intercooler
• Air Filter
• Turbo Charger
• Crankcase Breather
• Intake Manifold
• Turbo Boost Sensor
• Muffler
• Intake Valves
• Exhaust Valves
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Air System

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Air System

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Air Filter

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Turbo Charger

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Intercooler

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Valve Components

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Intake / Exhaust Valves

• Chrome Exhaust Valve (MY2K)


• Face Change on Valves(MY2K)

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Intake Manifold / Gasket

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Crankcase Breather

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Exhaust Manifold / Gasket

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AIR SYSTEM
TROUBLESHOOTING
Air System Troubleshooting
Low Power
Inspect the Following
• Intake
– Air Cleaner
– Charge Cooler
– Piping
– Turbocharger
• Exhaust
– Faulty Piping
– Obstructed Muffler
• Turbo Boost Sensor
• Low Compression
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Air System
Troubleshooting Tools
• Water Manometer
• Pyrometer/Thermocouple
• Pressure Gage
– Air Inlet Restriction
– Exhaust Back Pressure
– Crankcase Pressure

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Water Manometer

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Pyrometer/
Thermocouple

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Air Inlet Restriction

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Exhaust Back Pressure

• Beyer Enterprises
– Test Kit 200

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Crankcase Pressure

• Plugs into harness at


Oil Pressure
• Use Table to convert
Oil Pressure to Crank
Case Pressure

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THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Oil Requirements

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Lubrication System

• Oil Pump
• Regulator Valve
• Relief Valve
• Oil Cooler Adapter
• Oil Cooler
• Oil Filters
• Turbo Charger Feed Line
• Block Passages
• Head Passages
• Component Passages

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Series 60 Oil Schematic

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Series 60 Premium
Oil Schematic

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Series 50 Oil Schematic

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Oil Pump

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Oil Spray Nozzle

• All 1998 Blocks have drilled openings into the


main oil gallery

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Regulator Valve

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Relief Valve

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Oil Cooler Adapter

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Oil Cooler Flow Variations

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Oil Cooler (with Thermostat)

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Oil Filters

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LUBRICATION SYSTEM
TROUBLESHOOTING
Low Oil Pressure
Inspect the following
• Supply
– Low Oil Level
– Oil Quality
– Leaks
• Mechanical
– Stuck Regulator or Relief Valve
– Excessive Bearing Clearance
• Temperature
– High Coolant Temp.
– High Ambient Load
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Low Oil Pressure
Inspect the following
• Supply
– Low Oil Level
– Oil Quality
– Leaks
• Mechanical
– Stuck Regulator or Relief Valve
– Excessive Bearing Clearance
• Temperature
– High Coolant Temp.
– High Ambient Load
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High Oil Consumption

• High Consumption
– Leaks
– Worn Components
– Checking and Filling Procedures
• Pump Speed
• Restriction to flow (worn parts)

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High Oil
Consumption
• External Leaks
– Oil Lines or connections leaking
– Gaskets or oil seal leaks
– High crank case pressure
• Internal Leaks
– Oil Cooler Leaking
– Turbocharger
– Air compressor
– Worn Valve Guides/Seats

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High Oil
Pressure Continued
• Oil Control At Cylinder
– Oil Control rings worn, broken, or improperly
installed
– Scored liners, Pistons, or oil rings
– Excessive oil in Crankcase
– Valve seals worn or missing

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Blue Smoke Inspection

• Air Cleaner
• Turbocharger seals
• Turbocharger Oil Drain
• Exhaust Valve Guides and Seals
• Piston Rings
• Oil Level

BLUE SMOKE IS CAUSED BY EXCESSIVE OIL IN


THE CYLINDER
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Black Smoke Inspection

• Air Cleaner
• Turbocharger
• Exhaust Manifold Gaskets
• Muffler
• Exhaust Piping
• Charge Cooler
• Turbo Boost Sensor

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Black Smoke Inspection (cont.)

• Grade of Fuel
• Injector Output
• Avoid Lugging the Engine
• Faulty Injectors

BLACK SMOKE OCCURS WHEN FUEL IS NOT


COMPLETELY BURNED
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White Smoke Inspection

• Air Cleaner
• Connections
• Grade of Fuel
• Injector Output
• Aerated Fuel
• Burnt Exhaust Valves
• Exhaust Valve Adjustment
• Compression Rings
WHITE SMOKE IS CAUSED BY MISFIRING
CYLINDERS
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THE COOLING SYSTEMS
Cooling System

• Recommendations
• Water Pump
• Oil Cooler Housing
• Block Passages
• Head Passages
• Thermostat Housing
• Thermostats
• Radiator

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Coolant System Series 60

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Coolant System Series 50

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Water Pump

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Oil Cooler Housing

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Coolant Filter (External)

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Thermostat Housing

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Thermostats / Seals

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Radiator

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COOLANT SYSTEM
TROUBLESHOOTING
Cooling System
Temperature Problems
• HIGH TEMP
– Coolant level
– Fan Operation\ Ratio
– Hoses
– Pump Failure
– Ambient/Load
– Slipping Belts
– Plugged Radiator
• LOW TEMP
– Thermostats
– System Cooling Capacity
– Fan Stays On

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Cooling System
Troubleshooting Tools
• Belt Tension Gage
• Radiator/ Pressure Cap Tester
• Pyrometer
• Refractometer/Test kits

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Belt Tension Gage

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Radiator Pressure
Cap Tester

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Pyrometer/
Thermocouple

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Refractometer/
Test Kits

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Cooling System
Problems
• Cavitation
• Corrosion
• Scale
• Green Goo
• Leaking Seals
• Weep Holes
• Core Sand
• Combustion

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ENGINE TUNE-UP
Engine Tune Up

• Injector Height
• Valve Lash
• New Overlap procedure

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Timing Circle Series 50
Cylinder #1 Valves
Cylinder #4 Height

Cylinder #2 Valves Cylinder #3 Valves


Cylinder #3 Height Cylinder #2 Height

Cylinder #4 Valves
Cylinder #1 Height
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Overlap Series 60

Cylinder Overlap Valves Injector


6 1 5
2 5 3
4 3 6
1 6 2
5 2 4
3 4 1

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Lash Settings

• Intake Valves
• Exhaust Valves

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Injector Height Setting

• Variations in Cam profile


will determine setting

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Jacobs Engine Brake

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Jake Brake Settings

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Jacobs Flat Brake
Flatbrake Model 790

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Flat Jake

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Rocker Arm Change

Machined Face

Jake Bowl

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Weight
• Brake weight reduced 30 lbs.
• Spacer bars deleted for an additional
reduction of 8 lbs.
• Installed weight will be ~15 pounds less
than competitor (75 Vs 90 lbs....)

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Model 790 Design Features
• Two housings per engine
– Each housing covers 3 cylinders
– Front and rear housings are NOT interchangeable
• Ductile iron replaces compacted graphite
• Individual slave pistons and lash adjusting
screws
• 7 Point hold down system
– Flats on rocker shaft replace rocker shaft saddles
– Longer end studs hold down brake and rocker shaft

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Benefits
• Retarding power 405+ HP @ 2100 rpm
• 450+ HP@ 2100 rpm w/ closed
wastegate
• Fewer housings to handle during
assembly
– Two Vs three
• No more spacer bars
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Retarding Modulation

• Cylinder compression release sequence is new -


sounds are different
– 4 cylinder mid-range
» Old sequence was 1, 5, 6, 2
» New sequence is 5, 3, 6, 4
– 2 Cylinder low-range
» Old sequence was 3, 4
» New sequence is 1, 2

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