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The GLOBAL CITY

Facilitator: Voltaire B. Jacinto


QUESTIONS????
What are global cities?
What are the attributes of a global city?
Why globalization is a spatial phenomenon?
How cities served as engines of globalization?
KEY TERMS:

GLOBALITY
GLOBALISM
Imperialism and Internationalism
GLOBALITY is the end-state of Globalization.
 A hypothetical condition in which the process of globalization is
complete or nearly so, barriers have fallen, and "a new global
reality" is emerging.

 The term was used in 1998 by author and economist Daniel Yergin in a Newsweek article
that described the end-state of the globalization process, and in his book, Commanding
Heights: The Battle for the World Economy.
 William Safire traces the etymology of “globality” in his book No Uncertain Terms and
identifies a range of citations as far back as 1942, when it was used as a synonym for
“global.”

 Current use of “globality” as it applies to business – as a description


of the current competitive state of world commerce – was not
adopted until recently.

 The term has been described by William J. Holstein in the New York Times as "a
new
buzzword [that] doesn’t work — it merely describes trends that have
been under way for at least two decades under a very similar
name."
GLOBALITY vs. GLOBALISM
GLOBALISM a national policy of
treating the whole world as a proper
sphere for political influence.

Compare with: Imperialism and


Internationalism
What are GLOBAL CITIES?
Defining the Global City
New global cities have since arisen not only as
financial centers but also a producers of
services that are global in scope
Global cities are post-industrial
Manufacturing has been scattered across
national and global networks
Turn from “landscapes of production” to
“landscapes of consumption”
Defining the Global City
Global cities are “brain hubs” and centers of a
“knowledge economy”
Economies of scale and concentration are necessary
despite the proliferation of communications technology
Network economies and spillover effects include “thick
labor markets” in knowledge workers.
Polarization extends to differentiation by human capital
(skills and formal education)
Global City?
Sociologist Saskia Sassen popularized this
term.
Her The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo
(1990) has shaped the concepts and
methods used to analyze the role of cities
and their networks in the contemporary
world.
Sassen’s concept of Global City gives
emphasis on the flow of information and
capital.
Global Cities are major nodes in the
interconnected systems of information and
money, and the wealth that they capture is
intimately related to the specialized
businesses that facilitate those flows.

making sense of urban systems and their


global networks
In the age of globalization, the
activities of production are
scattered on a global basis.

 These complex, globalized production networks require new


forms of financial and producer services to manage them.
WHY STUDY GLOBAL CITIES?
Globalization as Spatial Phenomenon
 Spatial as it occurs in physical spaces.
- Foreign investments and capital move through a city
- Companies build skyscrapers

 Globalization is spatial because what makes it move is the fact that it is


based in places. In other words, cities act on globalization and
globalization acts on cities:
-Los Angeles, home of Hollywood, is where movies are made for
global consumption
-Tokyo, headquarters of Sony, the company coordinates the sale
of its various electronics goods to branches around the globe
Attributes of Global City
 SEATS OF ECONOMIC POWER
 New York have the largest stock market in the world
 Tokyo houses the most number of corporate headquarters
 Shanghai plays critical role in the global economic supply
 CENTERS OF AUTHORITY
 Washington DC, not wealthy as New York, but it’s the seat of American Power
 Canberra is Australia political capital: home to country’s politicians and
bureaucrats
 CENTERS OF POLITICAL INFLUENCE
 Cities that house major International Organizations: UN-New York, EU-Brussels
 CENTERS OF HIGHER LEARNING AND CULTURE
The question then becomes how to
identify these cities, and perhaps to
determine to what extent they
function as global cities specifically,
beyond all of the other things that
they do simply as cities.
1. AT Kearney’s list, developed in conjunction with
the Chicago Council on Global Affairs. Global Cities
Index uses criteria across five dimensions:
A. Business Activity (headquarters, services firms,
capital markets value, number of international
conferences, value of goods through ports and
airports)
B. Human Capital (size of foreign born population,
quality of universities, number of international
schools, international student population, number of
residents with college degrees)
C. Information Exchange (accessibility of major TV news
channels, Internet presence (basically number of
search hits), number of international news bureaus,
censorship, and broadband subscriber rate)
D. Cultural Experience (number of sporting event,
museums, performing arts venues, culinary
establishments, international visitors, and sister city
relationships).
E. Political Engagement (number of embassies and
consulates, think tanks, international organizations,
political conferences)
2. The Institute for Urban Strategies at The Mori Memorial Foundation
in Tokyo published another study called “The Global Power City
Index 2011.” This report examined cities in terms of functions
demanded by several “actor” types: Manager, Researcher, Artist,
Visitor, and Resident.

The functional areas were:


A. Economy (Market Attractiveness, Economic Vitality,
Business Environment, Regulations and Risk)
2. Research and Development (Research Background,
Readiness for Accepting and Supporting Researchers,
Research Achievement)
3. Cultural Interaction (Trendsetting Potential,
Accommodation Environment, Resources of Attracting
Visitors, Dining and Shopping, Volume of Interaction)
4. Livability (Working Environment, Cost of Living, Security
and Safety, Life Support Functions)
5. Environment (Ecology, Pollution, Natural Environment)
6. Accessibility (International Transportation Infrastructure,
Inner City Transportation Infrastructure)
Mori Foundation Global City Power Index (2015)
Global Power City top 10: (2016)
 1. London,
 2. New York City,
 3. Tokyo,
 4. Paris,
 5. Singapore,
 6. Seoul,
 7. Amsterdam,
 8. Berlin,
 9. Hong Kong,
 10. Sydney.
3. Another popular ranking is the Economist Intelligence Unit’s
Global City Competitiveness Index. They rank cities on a number of
domains:
A. Economic Strength (Nominal GDP, per capita GDP, % of
households with economic consumption > $14,000/yr, real
GDP growth rate, regional market integration)
B. Human Capital (population growth, working age
population, entrepreneurship and risk taking mindset,
quality of education, quality of healthcare, hiring of
foreign nationals)
C. Institutional Effectiveness (electoral process and
pluralism, local government fiscal autonomy, taxation, rule
of law, government effectiveness)
 D. Financial Maturity (breadth and depth of financial cluster)
 E. Global Appeal (Fortune 500 companies, frequency of international
flights, international conferences and conventions, leadership in higher
education, renowned think tanks)
 F. Physical Capital (physical infrastructure quality, public transport
quality, telecom quality)
 G. Environment and Natural Hazards (risk of natural disaster,
environmental governance)
 H. Social and Cultural Character (freedom of expression and human
rights, openness and diversity, crime, cultural vibrancy)
4. Jon Beaverstock, Richard G. Smith and Peter J. Taylor
established the Globalization and World Cities Research Network
(GaWC). A roster of world cities in the GaWC Research Bulletin 5 is
ranked by their connectivity through four "advanced producer
services": accountancy, advertising, banking/finance, and law

 Alpha world cities (with four sub-categories),


 Alpha ++, alpha +, alpha, alpha-
 Beta world cities (three sub-categories),
 Beta +, Beta, Beta-
 Gamma world cities (three sub-categories) and additional cities
with High sufficiency or Sufficiency presence.
 Gamma+, Gamma, Gamma-
Suggested activities:

 1. Look (Google) for these global cities according to


any of the four ranking/research groups. Compare
the ranking, criteria, and sustainability factors.
Analyze how globalization contributed to their
success
 2. Present a video-tour of these cities (Youtube will
help you) to amaze our students. Critique and
process.
 3.
CHALLENGES OF GLOBAL CITY

 GLOBAL CITIES CAN BE SITES OF GREAT INEQUALITY AND POVERTY


 New York and Tokyo can be sustainable because of their density: denser
settlements yield energy savings; extensive public transportation systems enable
people to drive less cutting carbon emission
 Los Angeles meanwhile are urban sprawls, with massive freeways that force
residents to spend money on cars and gas
 Manila, Bangkok, and Mumbai are dense, their lack of public transportation and
the government’s inability to regulate car Industries have made them extremely
polluted
 TREMENDOUS VIOLENCE CAUSE BY TERROR ATTACKS
 9/11 attack in New York in 2001
 Attacks by Zealots of the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant in
Paris
THE GLOBAL CITY AND THE POOR

MASSIVE INEQUALITY SITED IN SOME MAJOR CITIES


Cities like Mumbai, Manila and Jakarta have gleaming building
alongside massive shanty towns
GENTRIFICATION is a phenomenon of driving out the poor
in favor of newer, wealthier residents
African-Americans and Immigrants in New York and San
Francisco are being forced to move farther away from the
economic centers of their cities
BANLIEUE
A cluster of ethnic enclaves which includes poor Muslim migrants
forced to be out of Paris
CONCLUSION
Global Cities are material representation of Globalization
They are places that create the exciting fusion of culture
and ideas which also generate tremendous wealth
Yet, they remain sites of great inequality, where global
servants serve global entrepreneurs
The question of how globalization can be made more just
is partly a question of how people make their cities more
just
Talking Points:
1. While most of us will not be living in global cities,
how will our lives be affected by them?
2. Are the contradictions and polarizations in the
global city inevitable?
3. In what sense are cities mediums of globalization?
4. Why is economic power the most crucial
determinant of a global city?
5. Why is there a lot of inequality in global cities?
Suggested activities:
1. Identify other challenges and threats on global cities.
How these threats were managed?

 2. City Selection: Divide class into ten groups. Each group


will feature one of the top ten global cities. Present and
critique in class. Creativity and visual presentation is
necessary.
3. My Global City :
 1. Write a petition/position letter to the LGU (City Council) what you
want you city to have in future as a global city.
 A. Cite facilities and infrastructure necessary
 B. How to manage the challenges and threats to human condition?
 C. what would make you city unique?
(How would you enhance/integrate local and national heritage into
your global city. )

 Note: variant activities exploring the same topic would be more


appropriate.
THANK YOU VERY MUCH.