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Designing Insulation

Coordination for Ultra High

Voltage AC System

Dr.Bruce Mork
Team 21:
Harshil Patel
Ravi Raj Gupta
 Content:

 Introduction
 Importance of Insulation Co-ordination in UHV System
 What is BSL and BIL
 Types of stresses
 Lightning and Switching Over voltages
 Case Studies
 Conclusion
 References
 Introduction

 Over the time there has been a significant rise in demand and to
transfer such huge amount of power from generating stations to
distribution substations via 765kV transmission lines have comparatively
more losses (I2R losses) than if Voltage is higher. This gives rise to Ultra
High Voltage (UHV) systems. UHV systems deals with voltages up to
 Insulation Coordination is a designing criteria for any electrical
equipment which enables the design of an insulation for the equipment
in such a way that it minimizes interruptions during steady state
conditions and also minimizes damages in case of transient over
voltages and this is done economically.
 Importance of Insulation Co-
 To figure out the maximum stress on a system before constructing it, by
simulating maximum possible stresses on the minimum rated insulation
 This enables us to foresee the extreme conditions the equipment will
operate under and thus plan accordingly.

 BIL is abbreviation for Basic  BSL is abbreviation for Basic

lightning impulse insulation switching impulse insulation
level. level.
 The BIL rating of any equipment  The BSL rating of any equipment
gives us the maximum over gives us the maximum over
voltage in case of lightning that voltage in case of switching that
the equipment can withstand. the equipment can withstand.
 Types of Stresses

 According to duration they are classified into:

1 Temporary overvoltages
2 Slow front overvoltages
3 Fast front overvoltages
4 Very fast front overvoltages
 In our case we will focus on fast front overvoltages namely lightning and
switching overvoltages
 Lightning and Switching
 Lightning Overvoltages:
 Lightning is the result of natural phenomena which occurs when the negatively
charged ions in the sky discharge to the ground, this effects can result in to the
failure of the equipment's or the outages in to the transmission lines.
 To withstand from the lightning strike the surge arresters installed in to the
power system which is calculated according to the estimation of the lightning
 Switching Overvoltages:
 In the Ultra High Voltage system switching overvoltages also create the huge
transients to the system which can lead to the damage of the system.
 There are different methods use to reduce the switching over voltages like pre-
insertion resistor, controlled switching, surge arrester in transmission lines ,etc.
 ATP Circuit Diagram

Fig:1 Lightning on Shield wire Fig:2 Switching in Transmission line with Pre-
insertion resistor
 CASE1A:Lightning on Shield wire
Click icon to add picture

Fig1:Voltage on Tower 4 Fig2: Comparison between the Phase voltages of Towers

 CASE1B: Lightning on Shield wire with Surge Arrester
Click icon to add picture

Fig:1 Voltage at Tower 4 Fig:2 Comparison between the Phase voltages of

 CASE1C: Lightning on Phase Wire
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Fig:1 Voltage on Tower 4 Fig:2 Comparison between the Phase voltages of

 CASE1D: Lightning at Phase with Surge Arrester
Click icon to add picture

Fig1:Voltage on Tower 4 Fig2: Comparison between the Phase voltages

of Towers
 CASE2A: Switching without Pre-Insertion Resistor
Click icon to add picture

Fig:1 Effects of Switching on Tower 4 Fig2:Effects of Switching on

Tower 3
 CASE 2B:Switching with Pre-Insertion Resistor
Click icon to add picture

Fig:1 Switching Effects on Tower 4 Fig:2 Switching Effects of

Tower 3
 Conclusion

 In usual overvoltage conditions the UHV system under consideration is able to

withstand all the stress it is subjected to.
 In extreme cases, protective devices are required to mitigate the overvoltage
within the required BIL rating.
 Simplistic design criteria's such as changing grounding resistance can have
significant results on the the overvoltage magnitude.
 Using PIR for mitigating switching over voltages has losses and could harm the
resistive component over prolonged use.
 While designing a UHV system the minimum strengths of the system are
subjected to maximum possible stress and the difference gives us a sense of
reliability of the system. Though Insulation coordination is used for all system
voltages it is especially of major concern for UHV system due to the high steady
state voltage, hence a equivalent per unit switching overvoltage in UHV system
has higher voltage magnitude on HV experiences during lightning.
 References

 [1]:Hileman, Andrew R. Insulation coordination for power systems. CRC

Press, 1999
 [2]:Tailor, Hemangkumar, and Satishkumar Joshi. "Designing insulation
coordination for Ultra High Voltage AC system by analyzing over voltages
using frequency dependent line modeling." Engineering (NUiCONE), 2013
Nirma University International Conference on. IEEE, 2013.
 [3]:Rodriguez-Sanabria, D., C. Ramos-Robles, and L. Orama-Exclusa. "Lightning
and Lightning Arrester Simulation in Electrical Power Distribution
Systems." Electrical and Computer Engineering: University of Puerto Rico
[online] (2005)
 [4]::Abbasi, Ehsan, Heresh Seyedi, and Kai Strunz. "Simulation and analysis of
the effect of single-pole auto-reclosing on HV transmission lines switching
overvoltages." Power & Energy Society General Meeting, 2009. PES'09. IEEE.
IEEE, 2009
 [5]:Allan Greenwood, “Electrical Transients in Power Systems,” Second Edition