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Endocrine Gland Axis

Long Loop Short Loop Ultra-Short Loop

Long Loop

Short Loop

Synthesis Storage Release

Posterior Pituitary Hormones

• Neuropeptides: Oxytocin & ADH/AVP
• Produced by: Hypothalamic Nuclei
• Extension of the hypothalamus & contains
axon terminal of MagnoCellular Neuron
• ½ life: ~1-5 minutes
Bound or Unbound ?
Synthesized as large precursor
molecules in the ribosomes

Packaged into secretory

granules in Golgi apparatus

Transported down the

Hypothalamo-Hypophysial Tract
Post-Translational Processing

Release from nerve terminals in

the posterior pituitary
Posterior Pituitary Hormones

Oxytocin ADH/AVP
Oxytocin protein
• @ Target cells:
Activates PLC → Increase IP3 & 1,2 DAG → Increase
Cytosolic Ca2+ → Contraction of Smooth muscle cells

• Physiologic effects: • Regulation:

Milk Ejection Cervix Distention
Uterine Contraction Nipple Stimulation
Severe pain, Increased body
temperature, loud noise
V1R (V1a)
V3R (V1b)
• Physiologic effects:
Water reabsorption
• Regulation:
Vasoconstriction Increased plasma osmolality/
Decreased blood volume

Decrease blood pressure

Estrogen, Progesterone

Opiates, Nicotine

Alcohol & Natriuretic Factor

AVP bind to vassopressin receptor → activate adenylate
cyclase and increase cAMP formation → activate PKA and
express more aquaporins → from cytosol to insert in the
luminal/apical epithelial cell membrane → increase water
channels → permeability of water