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 Language Learning: A Journal

of Applied Linguistics
 A starting point from a British
 Continued the exploration
 Meant to reflect the insights of
structural and functional
 The advancement of L1 literacy
and language Arts
 Exploration continued
 More advancement: the application of
linguistics-to-language teaching
 More on practical language issues such
as language assessment, language
policy, SLA, learning strategies.
Evolution began
 Second Language Teaching (SLT)
becomes dynamic
 AL emerge as a genuine
problem-solving enterprise
 Roles expanded
 Discipline: Addresses real-world
language-based problems (Kaplan,
 More advancement: language
assessment, SLA, literacy,
multilingualism, language minority
rights, language planning and policy,
and teacher training
 Real contexts and need analysis (for
inquiry and exploration)
 Seen as functional and discourse
based (Systemic and descriptive
 Innovations of new tools for
research studies
 Exploration went beyond language teaching
and language learning
 Inclusions: language assessment, language
policy and planning, language use in
professional settings, translation,
lexicography, multilingualism, language and
technology, corpus linguistics.
 More incorporation: psychology, education,
anthropology, sociology, political science,
policy studies, public administration,
language studies…etc.
 AL as problem driven and real-world based
rather than theory driven (Kaplan and
Widdowson, 1992)
 1960s—Generative linguistics was the only
way for understanding language form,
expression, and acquisition (Rule-based
 Norm Chomsky theories: Transformational,
Government and Binding, and Minimalism
 Data and evidence
 Competence Vs. performance
 Notion of the idealized speaker
 Default genetic exploration of language
 Minimal interface with real-world use
 I think that it is the applied linguists, who works
with language in the real world, who is most
likely to have a realistic picture of what
language is, and not the theoretical linguist, who
sifts through several layers of idealization.
Furthermore, it may well be the applied linguist
who will most advance humankind’s
understanding of language, provided that he or
she is aware that no one has a monopoly on the
definitions and conduct of science, theory,
language research and truth.
1. Instruction and Interaction (Pedagogy)
2. The role of critical studies
3. Language uses in academic, disciplinary and
professional settings
4. Descriptive analysis of language in real
5. Multilingual orientation
6. Language testing and assessment
7. Roles of AL between RESEARCH AND
Referred to p.7-8
Referred to p. 8-9
Referred to p.10
 Generative Linguistics
 Functional Linguistics
 Structural Linguistics
 Systematic Linguistics
 Corpus Linguistics
 Curriculum
 Language input
 Authenticity
 Task-based learning
 Content-based learning
 Theoretical linguistics
 Pragmatics Sociolinguistics Psycholinguistics