You are on page 1of 22

The Meaning of Leadership

• Leadership is the ability to inspire

confidence and support among the people
who are needed to achieve organizational
Leadership Defined
• Interpersonal influence directed through
communication toward goal fulfillment
• An act that causes others to act or respond in a
shared direction
• The principle dynamic force that motivates and
coordinates the organization in the
accomplishment of its objectives
• A willingness to take blame (as defined by legendary
football quarterback Joe Montana)
Leadership as a Partnership

Leadership is regarded as a long-term

relationship, or partnership, where the
leader and the group members are
connected in such a way that the power
between them is balanced
Four Things Are Needed
• Exchange of purpose ( every worker at every level is

responsible for defining vision and value

• A right to say no ( the belief that people who express a contrary

opinion will be punished runs contrary to a partnership

• Joint accountability( each person is responsible for outcome )

• Absolute honesty
• Management is more formal and scientific than
• Management relies on universal skills
• Management is a set of explicit tools and
• Management is based on reasoning and testing
• Management involves the functional or
administrative aspects of planning, organizing,
directing, and controlling
• Leadership deals with the interpersonal aspects of
a manager’s job
• Leadership involves having a vision of what an
organization can become
• Leadership requires eliciting cooperation and
• Leadership produces change, often to a dramatic
• A leader creates a vision to direct the organization
Leader Manager
Visionary Rational
Passionate Consulting
Creative Persistent
Flexible Problem solving
Inspiring Tough-minded
Innovative Analytical
Courageous Structured
Imaginative Deliberative
Experimental Authoritative
Independent Stabilizing
Shares Knowledge Centralizes knowledge
Leadership Matters
• The results of one study showed
– transactional leadership was not significantly
related to performance
– charismatic leadership was slightly, positively
related to performance
– in an uncertain environment, charismatic
leadership was more strongly related to
The Impact of Leadership
• Leadership does make a difference
– Research from Michael Maccoby
– Southwest Airlines
– Studies of senior managers
– Attribution theory – the process of attributing
causality to events
The Impact of Leadership
• Formal leadership does not make a difference
– Leadership has a smaller impact on outcomes than
do forces in the situation
– There are three major arguments against the
importance of leadership
• substitutes for leadership
• leadership irrelevance
• complexity theory
Substitutes for Leadership

• Closely knit teams of Substitutes for leadership

highly trained individuals and leadership function
• Intrinsic satisfaction
• Computer technology
• Professional norms
Leader Irrelevance
• Factors outside the leader’s
control have a larger impact
on business than do
leadership actions
• Leaders have unilateral
control over a only a few
• Firms choose leaders whose
values are compatible with
those of the firm
Complexity Theory
• Holds that organizations are
complex systems that cannot be
explained by the usual rules of
• Leaders and managers can do
little to change the course of the
• Managers cannot predict which
business strategies or product
mixes will survive
• Managers can only scramble or
innovate in order to adapt to
outside forces
Leadership Roles
Research has identified nine roles that can be
classified as part of the leadership function of
Figurehead Entrepreneur
Spokesperson Strategic Planner
Team Builder
Team Player
Technical Problem Solver
Satisfactions of Leaders
• A feeling of power and
• A chance to help others
grow and develop
• High income
• Respect and status
• A feeling of “being in
on” things
• An opportunity to
control money and other
Dissatisfactions and
Frustrations of Leaders
• Too much uncompensated overtime
• Too many “headaches”
• Not enough authority
• Loneliness
• Too many problems involving
• Too much organizational politics
• The pursuit of conflicting goals
A Framework for
Understanding Leadership
• The leadership framework can be expressed in
terms of a simple formula:

L = f (l, gm, s)

• The formula shows that the leadership process is a

function of the leader, group members, and other
situational variables
SOURCE: Managing Today! by Stephen P. Robbins, © 1997 Reprinted by permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.
Leadership Effectiveness
• Leadership effectiveness refers to attaining
desirable outcomes such as productivity, quality,
and satisfaction in a given situation
• Whether or not the leader is effective depends on
four sets of variables
Skill Development in
• Leadership skills are in high
• Leadership skills are listed as
the top attributes executives
are seeking in candidates for
management jobs
• Developing leadership skills
is more complex than
developing structured skills
and can be acquired, using a
general learning model