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DRILLING PRACTICES

DRILL STEM TESTING


DRILL STEM TESTING
WHAT IS A DRILL STEM TEST
A TEMPORARY WELL COMPLETION TO GATHER INFORMATION ON THE
POTENTIAL PRODUCTIVITY OF A FORMATION.

WHO REVIEWS THE DST PROGRAM

OIM SENIOR TOOLPUSHER OPERATOR REP KEY SERVICE PERSONNEL

KEY AREA’S OF REVIEW

COMMUNICATION ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES EMERGENCY RESPONSE

EXPECTED TEST PARAMETERS REQUIRED CHANGES TO PROGRAM


• Temperature
• Pressure
• Hazards
BASIC PRECAUTIONS

• PRIOR TO CONDUCTING ANY DST THE BOP’S AND GAS DETECTION SYSTEM WILL BE TESTED.

• DRILLPIPE OR TUBING CAN BE USED BUT MUST BE DESIGNED FOR ANTICIPATED CONDITIONS.
ANY DOUBT ABOUT THE TEST STRINGS INTEGRITY WILL BE REFERED TO THE RIG MANAGER.

• DURING THE TEST THE ANNULUS PRESSURE WILL BE MONITORED TO ENSURE A LEAK DOES
NOT DEVELOP IN THE TEST STRING.

• ALL DST WORK WILL USE A SURFACE TREE THAT ENABLES THE TEST STING TO BE CLOSED IN.

• WHEN WIRELINE IS TO BE USED DURING THE TEST A LUBRICATOR WILL BE INSTALLED ON


SURFACE STACKS.

• WHEN A DST IS FINISHED, CONTENTS OF TEST STRING ARE REVERSE CIRCULATED OUT PRIOR
TO RELEASE OF PACKER OR UNSTINGING FROM PERMANENT SET PACKER.

• SPECIAL ATTENTION SHOULD BE EMPHASISED FOR H2S DETECTION.


SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS FOR FLOATERS

• TEST STRING HUNG OFF IN BOP’S WITH A SUBSEA MASTER VALVE INSTALLED (E-Z TREE OR
SUBSEA TEST TREE).

• ENSURE TIME IS KNOWN FOR UNLATCHING IN EVENT OF AN EMERGENCY.

• TEMPORARY ABANDONMENT THE BLIND RAMS WILL BE CLOSED ABOVE THE MASTER VALVE.

• ENSURE ENOUGH HIGH PRESSURE FLEXIBLE LINES ARE USED TO COMPENSATE FOR MAX HEAVE.
PRECAUTIONS WHILE TESTING

• FOR INITIAL TEST OF A ZONE, DST TOOLS MUST NOT BE OPENED AT NIGHT WITHOUT THE
PERMISSION OF THE OPERATIONS MANAGER. THE REGION MANAGER MAY DECIDE THAT THIS
DECISION WILL BE MADE AT REGIONAL LEVEL.

• WHEN TEST WELLS CONTAINING H2S NO GAS SHOULD BE RELEASED INTO THE ATMOSPHERE
UNLESS IT IS BURNED ON THE SPOT.

• ALWAYS OPEN UP A WELL SLOWLY, USING THE UPPER MASTER VALVE.

• AN EMERGENCY SURFACE SHUT-DOWN SYSTEM (ESD) SHOULD BE INCORPERATED INTO ANY


WELL TEST HOOK UP.

• ALWAYS PRESSURE TEST THE INSTALLED EQUIPMENT, PRIOR TO OPENING UP THE WELL.

• SPACING OF UNITS INVOLVED IN WELL TEST HOOK-UP SHOULD BE AS PER RECOMMENDED


SAFETY STANDARDS.

• WIND DIRECTION OR NO WIND NEEDS TO BE CONSIDERED.

• MINIMISE RISKS WITH IGINTION SOURCES BY GROUNDING UNITS, NO NAKED FLAMES ETC.
REASONS TO DO A DRILL STEM TEST

WE NEED TO KNOW :
• IF THERE IS A RESERVOIR
• WHAT DOES IT CONTAIN
• AT WHAT RATE WILL IT PRODUCE
• FOR HOW LONG
• WHAT FACILITIES WILL BE REQUIRED AND WHEN
• WHAT HAZARDS ARE THERE
KNOWLEDGE vs RISK

HIGH

RISK

LOW

+
KNOWLEDGE
PRE-DRILLING PHASE

Data Source Possible Analysis


Seismic Identify possible Accumulations
Regional Information Qualitative Accumulation
size and shape using assumed
Velocity Profile
Hydrocarbon Prospectivity
(Seismic oddities / regional
information)

Degree Of Development Uncertainty = Very High


DRILLING A WELL

Data Source Possible Analysis

Mud Log Lithology


Hydrocarbon Shows Geological Profile
Core Samples Depositional Environment
MWD Logs Qualitative Hydrocarbons
Pressure Regime (Qualitative)
Formation Characteristics at the wellbore
Fluid Contacts
Near-wellbore petrophysical parameters

Degree Of Development Uncertainty = High


OPEN HOLE LOGGING

Data Source Possible Analysis

Well Logs Near-well formation characteristics


VSP Hydrocarbon Contacts
RFT Samples Lithology
Qualitative HC mobility
Qualitative presence of hydrocarbons (HC)
Confirm Seismic velocity profile
Firm-up structure mapping
Quantitative Pressure regime
Qualitative HC PVT analysis

Degree Of Development Uncertainty = High


LIMITED INFLUX TESTING

Data Source Possible Analysis

Transient Pressure Response Near-well formation characteristics


Samples Near-Well Productivity Index
Additional qualitative PVT analysis

Degree Of Development Uncertainty = High


CONVENTIONAL WELL TESTING

Data Source Possible Analysis

Transient pressure response Bulk reservoir properties


Pseudo Steady State Response Near-well boundaries
Bulk HC Samples Ideal Productivity Index
Extended HC PVT Analysis
Trace Element analysis (qualitative)
Processing characteristics of the HC
Formation Integrity (sanding
tendency under high drawdown)

Degree Of Development Uncertainty = Medium


EXTENDED WELL TESTING

Data Source Possible Analysis

Steady State Pressure Response Establish Reservoir extent


Surface Process Monitoring Pressure support mechanisms Wellsite
Chemistry Development Strategy
Optimise Process Facility design
Measure Completion Performance
Calibrate design programs, etc.
Stabilised trace element analysis

Degree Of Development Uncertainty = Medium / Low


TIMING

Test programs

Planning and preparation


• For conventional wells, 2 - 3 months from expected TD
• For unconventional operations ( HPHT, EWT etc.), 6 - 12 months

Testing operations start once the the well has its final casing/liner
string in place and final logs have been run.
TESTING OPERATION

Drilling vs Testing

– During conventional drilling, the mud weight is adjusted such that the
hydrostatic pressure of the fluid counteracts the reservoir pressure
• Overbalanced situation, zero hydrocarbon flow to surface.

– During conventional testing, the fluid positioned above the reservoir


creates a hydrostatic pressure which is less than the reservoir
pressure.
• Underbalanced situation, reservoir fluids can now flow to surface
DRILL STEM TEST TOOLS
• Function of DST tools

– Isolation of producing interval from mud hydrostatic


– Test “Cushion” - lighter fluid than mud hydrostatic fluid column
– Down hole shut-in valve to minimise wellbore storage
– Reverse valves to “kill” the well at the end of the test
– Slip joints to compensate for tubing length changes due to
temperature & pressure changes
DST TOOLS

DRILL COLLARS

SLIP JOINT, FULLY OPEN

DOWNHOLE SHUT IN VALVE

SLIP JOINT, 1/2 OPEN

MEMORY GAUGES SLIP JOINT, CLOSED

RA SUB
SAFETY JOINT / JAR

DRILL COLLARS

PACKER SECONDARY REVERSE VALVE

PERFORATING DRILL COLLARS


GUNS
PRIMARY REVERSE VALVE
DST TOOLS
• Operating methods

– Tools are operated by

• String manipulation / rotation


• Applied pressure to the annulus
• Annular pressure
• Tubing pressure

– Below packer and inside tubing - hydrocarbons


– Above packer in casing tubing annulus - kill weight fluid
+ any applied pressure
SUBSEA SYSTEMS

• Function of Sub Sea Landing String

– On a semi-sub or drill ship the test string requires additional


components for safety & operational reasons.

• Sub Sea Test Tree, Retainer Valve


– Provides the ability to isolate the tubing in the stack and
disconnect without killing the well.

• Lubricator Valve
– Provides the ability to run extended length tool strings
without long sections of lubricator riser at surface.
SUBSEA TEST TREE & VALVE ASSEMBLY

LATCH ASSEMBLY

VALVE ASSEMBLY

SLICK JOINT

FLUTED HANGER

TEST
TREE
SURFACE TREE
COMPONENTS OF THE LANDING STRING
CONTROL RETAINER VALVE
SWIVEL CONSOLE CLOSED

HYDRAULIC HOSE
REEL
LANDING LUBRICATOR VALVE SUBSEA TEST TREE
STRING UNLATCHED
HOSE PROTECTOR

RETAINER VALVE
RAMS CLOSED

SUBSEA TEST TREE SUBSEA TEST


LATCH ASSEMBLY TREE VALVES
CLOSED
SUBSEA TEST
SLICK JOINT
TREE

SPACER SUB
FLUTED HANGER

LATCHED UNLATCHED
WELL TEST EQUIPMENT

• Function of Well Test Equipment

– Management of pressure reduction from well to disposal system

– Heating if required of produced fluids

– Removal of any produced solids

– Separation of produced Oil, Water & Gas

– Disposal of produced fluid

– Data acquisition, flow rates, pressures & fluid samples


GENERAL LAYOUT OF WELL TEST EQUIPMENT

Courtesy of Expro Group


CHOKE MANIFOLD
ADJUSTABLE CHOKE TIP
• Function

– Primary pressure drop , flow control


– Consists of an “adjustable” and a “fixed”
choke DIRECTION OF FLOW
– Size of choke is usually given in 64ths of
an inch, equivalent bore Adjustable choke

– Adjustables used for clean-up period


– Fixed used once pressure has stabilised

Fixed choke
HEATER

• Function

– To increase the temperature of the produced


fluid downstream of the choke manifold
• Improved separation efficiency

– To provide a choke in a heated environment


• Avoidance of hydrate formation
HEATER

STEAM INLET STEAM SAFETY


OUTLET VALVE
WELL FLUID INLET

CHOKE
BYPASS

WELL FLUID OUTLET

DRAIN
SEPARATOR

• Function

– Separation of produced oil, water & gas


– Rate measurement of produced fluid
– Provision of sampling points for re-combination
samples
HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR

Horizontal Separators
Primarily used for high liquid content wells Courtesy of Expro Group
Vertical Separators
Primarily used for high gas content wells Courtesy of Expro Group
OIL BURNER

Courtesy of Expro Group


PREPARATION

Outline procedure

• Run scrapers across packer setting depth


• Condition drilling mud or displace to brine
• Run junk basket
• BOP test
• Space out run for sub-sea tree

Courtesy of Expro Group


TOOLS & SUB-SEA EQUIPMENT PREP

• Outline procedure
ROTARY TABLE (RKB)
– Layout tools
– Function and pressure test LAND-OFF POINT IN WELLHEAD

– Drift tools
RESERVOIR FEATURE OR RA TAG
– Strap lengths of tools
– Strap lengths of tubulars RA SUB IN TEST STRING
– Drift tubulars
– Prepare running “tally” DISTANCE FROM RA SUB TO TOPSHOT
SURFACE WELL TEST EQUIPMENT PREP
• Outline procedure

– Position equipment on rig deck

– Connect equipment using service pipe work

– Prepare instrument control and data acquisition equipment

– Pressure & function test equipment

– Function test safety system

– Prepare sampling equipment


RUNNING PROCEDURES
• Typical Procedures on a Semi-sub

– Pick up and run TCP guns and DST tools


• Check strap length between top shot and RA tag
• Pressure test BHA
– Run tubing
• Pressure test tubing
– Perform space out / correlation
– Pull back to sub-sea hang off point
– Run subsea equipment
– Pick up and make up flowhead
RUNNING PROCEDURES

• Typical procedures on a semi-sub

– Set packer
– Correlation run to confirm packer setting depth
– Pressure test landing string tools and surface tree & choke
– Function open tester valve and prepare to perforate well
TEST PROGRAM

• Test program determined by test objectives

• Typical test program


– Perforate - minimal flow
– Down hole shut in to determine initial reservoir pressure
– Clean-up flow
– Initial build up
– Single rate or multi rate flow period(s)
– Main shut-in
TESTING PROGRAM

• Typical test program

– Sampling flow period

– Well kill

– Pull test string

– Validate gauge data

– Abandon well

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