Essential Questions: 1. Identify the major city-states in Greece and their contributions to Western civilization. 2.
Compare and Contrast the results of the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars with regard to Athens.
Geography of Early Greece
y Mountains and seas make it difficult for Greece to become a unified empire. y Seas also provided a link for to the outside world through trade y Greeks had citystates called the polis with an acropolis or high city on a hilltop temples y Often surrounded by a wall.
Named for King Minos of Crete, the civilization was based on trade not conquest. Traded with Egypt and Mesopotamia Palace at Knossos: Shows evidence of
matriarchal society and athletic contests
1400BC civilizations disappears: natural disasters and invaders possible.
Mycenaean Life and Culture (1400BC-1200BC)
y y y
Indo-European invaders creating the first Greek state. Sea traders with City-states ruled by warrior kings Trojan War 1250 BC:
Trade conflict between Mycenae and Troy over a strait, narrow water passage, that connects Mediterranean and Black Seas. Legend: Trojan prince Paris kidnapped Helen, Greek queen. Fought for 10 yrs and ended with the Greeks sneaking into the city in a horse. Heinrich Schliemann proved that there was a war.
Age of Homer
Dorians invade and Greece falls into a Dark Age 1100BC-800BC
Homer 750BC= blind poet told stories of heroes.
Epics: Iliad , about the Trojan War, and Odyssey, about Odysseus return home form the war. They teach us about the Greek values of honor, courage, and eloquence, as well as about their beliefs
Early Civilization in Greece
Minoans on Crete Catastrophic collapse of Minoan Civilization Trojan War over trade rights
Dark Age Mycenaean Civilization Collapsed
End Dark Age
New Types of Government
New Types of Government
a government in which a king or queen has complete control y Aristocracy: y Government controlled by a landowning elite y Oligarchy: y Government in which power lies in the hands of a few such as the business class. y Democracy: y Type of government that develops in Athens in which the people (citizens) hold ruling power.
The Polis: Center of Greek Life
Group Adult Males Political Rights Citizens with political rights
Women and Children
Citizens with no political rights
Slaves and Foreigners
Tyranny in the City-States
Government Tyranny Advantage Ended aristocratic domination and was favored by both new rich and poor peasants. Built marketplaces, temples, and walls. Citizens get to participate in government Disadvantage It was an insult to the idea of rule of law which the Greeks believed was important. It was only open to upper class males.
Two kings keep each other in check and are helped by the ephors
Many were citizens and noncitizens like slaves had no voice in government.
Athens and Sparta
y By 750 BC, the city-
state, became the central focus of Greek Life y Two of the most important city-states in Greece are Athens and Sparta. y Define/Identify the following:
y y y y y
Hoplite Helot Tyrant Ephors Cleisthenes
Sparta and Athens
Sparta Government Oligarchy / Monarchy with Ephors Military State Physical Education and the Art of War Start at 7 Looked down on trade and wealth, took spoils of war Produce healthy sons, health and exercise important, inherit property, obedience Brutal and harsh punishments, prisoners of war Subordinate to men Both Monarchies Athens Monarchy -> Aristocracy -> Tyrany -> Democracy Girls little to none, boys learned many subjects in school Trade was important and led to wealth and power No share in public life, managed household and raised children Debt slavery was common but outlawed by Solon
Military, Gods and Gods, Language
Role of Women
Treatment of Slaves
Believed Greeks were superior and owned slaves
Leader Solon Reforms Cancelled all land debts and freed people who had fallen into slavery for debts.
Pleased the merchants improving trade, gave aristocrats land to peasants in order to please the poor.
Created a new council of five hundred that supervised foreign affairs, oversaw the treasury, and proposed laws. => created the foundations for democracy
Greek Colonization 750-550 BC
y Greece established colonies in y Southern Italy y Southern France y Eastern Spain y Northern Africa (west of Egypt) y Along the Black Sea (on the Helespont and Bosporus) = Byzantium/Consta ntinople/Istanbul y Colonization led to increased trade and industry as well as wealthy individuals seeking political power.
Greece vs. Persia
Marathon: 490 BC Greeks, out numbered 2-1 defeat the Persians. Pheidippides ran 26.2 miles to proclaim the victory. Themistocles urged Athens to build a navy to protect their coasts. Thermopylae: 480 BC King Leondias and a small Spartan force held the Persian Immortals led by Xerxes I off at a pass in between two mountains The Persians overtake them, however it bought the other city-states time to build larger armies
Salamis Athenian navy destroys Persian navy and claims victory for the war.
Plataea A few months later they formed the largest Greek army up to that time and defeated the Persian Army.
Persian ars: Largest empire in t e rld vs. small city-states f reece
Age of Pericles
Following the Persian Wars, Athens dominated Greece and was at the height of its power.
Delian League: alliance between Greek city-states formed as a result of the Persian Wars to protect against future attacks
Pericles established a direct democracy in Athens.
Citizens vote on issues not for representatives.
Sparta and Athens, former allies against Persia turn on each other in the Peloponnesian War
Sparta allies with Persia and crushes Athens
Spartan victory hurts democracy and ends Athenian Greatness Sparta was defeated by Thebes
Weakened Greek city-states invaded by the Macedonians.
Philip of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great come to power.
Early Greece Quiz
1. Blind poet credited with creating the Iliad and Odyssey 2. Where did the Greeks build their temples? 3. How is an oligarchy different from a democracy? 4. Why do we call long races Marathons today? 5. What feature of the geography of Greece made it difficult to unify? 6. What was the first Greek state called established by the Indo-Europeans? 7. _________ boys were trained to be soldiers from the age of 7. 8. Which city-state was known for philosophy and education? 9. Who took credit for winning the Persian Wars? 10. What was the result of the Peloponnesian War?
Geography of Early Greece: Use Chapter 4
y Cities y Athens y Sparta y Byzantium y Thebes y Delphi y Troy y Mycenae y Knossos y Bodies of Water y Aegean Sea y Black Sea
= city ^^^ = Mountains Color all bodies of water Blue Shade regions the color indicated
y Ionia Red y Macedonia
Green y Greece Yellow y Crete Pink y Asia Minor Purple
Mediterran ean Sea
y Battle Locations * y Thermopyla e y Marathon y Salamis
Essential Question: How do the achievements of Classical Greece influence Western art and thought today? Chapter 4 Section 4 Pages 127-133
Copy on Notebook Paper
y Affected every area of life y It was necessary to the well-
being of the state y There were twelve chief gods and goddesses that were thought to live on Mt. Olympus y Define rituals: y Who was worshiped at Olympia? Delphi?
Gods and Goddesses: DO NOT COPY!!! What do you notice about this family tree?
Classical Greece: Draw a chart like this one on
notebook paper and fill in the information for each box found on the next few slides.
Art and Architecture History
Art and Architecture
yBased on reason and harmony yOften found on pottery yLifelike statues of nude males were common ySculptors achieved a standard of ideal beauty yTemples are best examples of architecture yParthenon the most famous temple built to honor Athena at the acropolis in Athens
Art and Architecture
yHerodotus, the father of history, wrote about the Persian Wars from the point of view of the Greeks.
yIncluded the role of the gods and goddesses but did not show the Persian point of view so he was biased.
yThucydides, non-biased (meaning he told both sides of the story), wrote about the Peloponnesian Wars and tried to show both sides of the conflict.
yHe emphasized the accuracy of facts not the gods and goddesses.
yPythagoras: Mathematician that calculated the sides of a right triangle. ySocrates, Plato, and Aristotle are perhaps the most famous Greek philosophers
ySocrates: Socratic method of examining things through critical questioning, ³The unexamined life is not worth living.´ y Plato: Wrote the Republic yAristotle: Alexander¶s teacher, thought government needed strong and virtuous leader
Amphitheater see page 129
yGreeks created drama as it is known today in Western culture including the following two types: yTragedy = plays about human suffering ySophocles: Oedipus Rex (watch the video on the next slide and describe the story here) yStory about a man doomed to kill his father and marry his mother yComedy = plays that mocked society and government
Copy on Notebook paper
Philip lost his right eye in battle.
Macedonia: y Following the Peloponnesian
War, the city-states of Greece were weakened.
y For 66 yrs. Sparta, Athens, and
Thebes struggled to dominate Greek affairs and Macedonia was ignored.
y In 359 BC Philip II of Macedonia came to the throne and by 338 BC he had gained control of all of Greece. BATTLE OF CHAERONEA y Philip decided to invade Asia in a war with Persia y He insisted that the Greek states for a league and cooperate with him in a war against Persia y BUT died before he could complete this task.
Alexander the Great: Copy on Notebook Paper
y Alexander was the son of Philip
II. y He established an empire that extended from Greece to Egypt and India. y Alexander s most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek culture. y Macedonia, Syria, Pergamum, and Egypt were the four kingdoms that emerged following Alexander s death.
Hellenistic Era: Copy on Notebook Paper
y Alexander s conquests created the Hellenistic Era,
an age that saw the expansion of the Greek language and ideas to the non-Greek World
y Hellenistic means to imitate Greeks
y Alexandria was the center of the Hellenistic world.
The lighthouse at Alexandria was one of the ancient wonders of the world. It had more than 500,000 scrolls.
Accomplishments of the Hellenistic Era Use this to help with key terms and summarizing information on 4:5 worksheet
Euclid wrote the Elements
Archimedes established the value of pi
Sun is the center of the universe and Earth orbits
Earth was round and calculated its circumfere nce
Epicureans believed in happiness through pleasure
Stoics believed in living in harmony with the will of God
Hellenistic Philosophy: Copy on Notebook Paper
y Epicureans believed that the way to achieve
happiness was the pursuit of pleasure, the only true good.
y To achieve pleasure, people had to free themselves
from emotional turmoil and worry
y Stoics believed that happiness cold only be found
when people gained inner peace by living in harmony with the will of God.
y Stoics did not believe in the need to separate
themselves from the world and politics.
Art and Drama: Use this to complete the
Compare and Contrast chart on 4:5 Worksheet
y Compare and contrast achievements in art and
drama between the Classical and Hellenistic eras.
Most Drawings on pottery, Parthenon at Athens Acropolis Classical art never achieved realism but was idealistic Socrates= SM, Plato= Republic and reality, Aristotle=school, politics, philosopher king is best Baths, Library and Lighthouse of Alexandria Statues (nude males), Achieved emotional and more Temples, amphitheatres realistic art and drawings Athens the center of philosophy Epicureanism= happiness through pleasure, Stoicism= happiness through harmony with the will of God
Trivial Pursuit Ancient Greece: Fourth
Period finish the game you started using sections 1-2. Second Period create a game using information from sections 3-5 of chapter 4
y Work with your group to design a game for another group to play y Games should involve students looking at images or hearing/reading descriptions of a people, places, achievements, and events in Classical and Hellenistic Greece. y You may also throw in certain names or vocabulary words that you came across in Chapter 4 Sections 3-5 to make the game more difficult. y Your game must include the following: y Question cards (each with only one clue) and a hidden answer key y Game board y Rules (especially how to keep score)