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• To introduce ITIL -- Terms, Definitions, Phrases -- As Best Practice • Gain an understanding of the essential ITIL processes and how they relate to each other, in order to support and deliver a quality IT service • An overview of ITIL processes and how they relate to each other in order to support and deliver a quality IT service.
Course Content - Morning
• Implementation • Configuration Management • Service Desk • Incident Management • Problem Management • Change Management • Release Management
Afternoon • Service Level Management • Financial Management for IT Services • Capacity Management • IT Service Continuity Management • Availability Management Slide 4 .Course Content .
• • • ITIL is a Best Practice Framework Integrated into OGC and BSI guidance Key Objective 1 ► Align IT services with the Current and Future needs of the business and its Customers Key Objective 2 ► To improve Quality of the services delivered Key Objective 3 ► Reduce long term Cost of service provision ITIL Philosophy – Scaleable Process driven approach
• • •
ITIL - IT Infrastructure Library
Business IT Alignment
Introduction to Service Management The Service DeskConfiguration Management Incident ManagementProblem Management Change ManagementRelease Management
ITIL Service Management Foundation .
Phrases • Gain an understanding of the essential ITIL processes and how they relate to each other.Course Objectives • To introduce ITIL As Best Practice framework Terms. in order to support and deliver a quality IT service Slide 9 . Definitions.
Course Content – Day 1 • Introduction • Introduction to IT Service Management • Service Desk • Configuration Management • Incident Management • Problem Management • Change Management • Release Management Slide 10 .
Course Content – Day 2 • Service Level Management • Financial Management for IT Services • Capacity Management • IT Service Continuity Management • Availability Management Slide 11 .
ITIL Overview • • • • ITIL is a Best Practice Framework Integrated into OGC and BSI guidance ITIL Philosophy – Scaleable Process driven approach Key Objective 1 ► Align IT services with the Current and Future needs of the business and its Customers Key Objective 2 ► To improve Quality of the services delivered Key Objective 3 ► Reduce long term Cost of service provision • • Slide 12 .
ITIL .IT Infrastructure Library Mission Statement Business IT Alignment Strategy Tactics Planning Service Delivery Service Support Operations day-to-day Slide 13 .
Introduction to Service Management The Service DeskConfiguration Management Incident ManagementProblem Management Change ManagementRelease Management Slide 14 .
INTRODUCTION TO IT SERVICE MANAGEMENT Slide 15 .
• To align IT services with the current and future needs of the business and its Customers • To develop the quality of the IT services delivered • To reduce the long term cost of service provision Slide 16 .IT Service Management Objectives ITIL is a Best Practice Framework used …..
Why Service Management • Increasing IT visibility and Reliance • Increasing demand from Business to deliver effective IT solutions/services (Cost Effective) • Increasing complexity of IT infrastructure and processes • Increasing competition • Increasing pressure to realise return on investment Slide 17 .
Considerations • Do not be over ambitious • Consider what elements already exist. are in use and effective • Identify what can be re-used or needs to be developed • Adapt the guidelines to meet your requirements Slide 18 .
Process Improvement Model Slide 19 .
Process Improvement Stages • Process improvement definition • Communication • Planning • Implementation • Review and Audit Slide 20 .
Provider: the unit responsible for the provision of IT service. Supplier: a third party responsible for supplying or supporting underpinning elements of the IT service. User: the person using the service on a daily basis.ITIL Service Management • Service Support ► Day to day operational support of IT services Long term planning and improvement of IT service provision • Service Delivery ► Key Definitions Customer: recipient of a service: usually the Customer management has responsibility for the funding of the service. Slide 21 .
IT Service Management Overview SPOC Single Point of Contact SD Service Desk IM Incident Mngt CH Change Mngt REL Release Mngt BUSINESS (Customer) User User User SLA SPOC SLA Service Level Agreement SLM Service Level Mngt AM Availability Mngt CM Capacity Mngt IT SCM IT Service Continuity Mngt SLM SD SERVICE SUPPORT IM PROBLEM FINANCE CH REL SERVICE DELIVERY AM CM IT SCM CONFIGURATION Slide 22 .
Service Support Process Model Business. Customers or Users Difficulties Queries Enquiries Incidents Service Desk Management Tools Communications Updates Workarounds Changes Releases Incidents Incident Management Problem Management Change Management Release Management Configuration Management CMDB Incidents Problems Known Errors Changes Releases CI’s Relationships Slide 23 .
OLA’s Service Reports Service Catalogue SIP Exception Reports Audit Reports Requirements Targets Achievements Financial Management for IT Services Financial Plan Types & Models Costs & Charges Reports Budgets & Forecasts Audit Report IT Service Continuity Management IT Continuity Plans BIA & Risk Analysis Control Centres DR Contacts Reports Audit Reports Alerts & Exceptions Changes Management Tools Slide 24 . Customers and Users Queries Enquiries Service Level Management Capacity Management Capacity Plan CDB Targets/Thresholds Capacity Reports Schedules Audit Reports Communications Updates Reports SLA’s. SLR’s.Service Delivery Process Model Availability Management Availability Plan Design Criteria Targets/Thresholds Reports Audit Reports Business.
The Service Desk Slide 25 .
Goal – Primary Objective • To act as the central point of contact between the User and IT Service Management To handle Incidents and request and provide an interface for other activities such as Change Management Problem Management Configuration Management Release Management Service Level Management IT Service Continuity Management • Slide 26 .
Why a Service Desk? • • • • • • Provide a single point of contact for Users Deliver high quality support to meet business goals Help identify costs of IT services Support and communication for changes Increase user perception and satisfaction Assist identification of business opportunities Slide 27 .
Responsibilities • • • • • • • Receive and record ALL calls from users Provide first line support Refer to second line (Generalists) support where necessary Monitoring and escalation of incidents Keep users informed on status and progress Provide interface between ITSM disciplines Produce measurements and metrics Slide 28 .
budget and resources Advertise and sell benefits / communicate quick wins Involve and educate users / train support staff Types of Service Desk Local Service Desk Central Service Desk Virtual Service Desk Slide 29 .Setting up a Service Desk • • • • • Understand the business needs and requirements Define clear objectives Obtain support.
Daily.Pager systems / text messaging Slide 30 .Internet / Intranet capability .Service availability / breaches .Overall performance. achievements and trend analysis • Service Desk Technologies . weekly.Considerations of a Service Desk • Metrics and management reporting .Incident / problem status against service levels .Integrated tool sets / Knowledge base / Diagnostic tools . monthly .ACD / IVR systems .
Local Service Desk Slide 31 .
Centralised Service Desk Slide 32 .
Virtual Service Desk Slide 33 .
Benefits of the Service Desk • • • • • Improved User service. perception and satisfaction Increased User accessibility via the single point of contact Improved quality and faster response to User requests More effective and efficient use of support resources Better management information to make decision on support Slide 34 .
Exam Tips • A Service Desk staff should NOT be Forthright Slide 35 .
good interpersonal skills C Logical. firm B Business aware. technical specialists. tenacious. tolerant. good interpersonal skills Slide 36 . numerate.Exam Questions • Which of the following lists best describes the key attributes needed by the Service Desk Staff? A Good interpersonal skills. forthright. articulate. technically astute. tenacious. methodical. analytical D Well presented. methodical.
Exam Questions • Which incidents should be logged by the Service Desk? A B C D Only incidents not resolved at logging Only incidents from bona fide customers All incidents except simple enquiries All incidents Slide 37 .
Exam Questions • 1 2 3 Consider the following metrics: Number of incidents closed on without onward referral Number of incidents correctly categorised at logging Number of hardware faults reported • Which of the above are valid performance indicators for the Service Desk? A B C D All three 1&2 1&3 2&3 Slide 38 .
Configuration Management Slide 39 .
Slide 40 .Goal – Primary Objective • To provide a logical model of the IT infrastructure by identifying. maintaining and verifying the versions of ALL Configuration Items in existence.controlling.
Types of CIs • 4 CI Types 1. Hardware 2. IT Staff NOT USERS Slide 41 . Software 3. Documentation Processes and Procedures Technical documentation Diagrams/Charts 4.
Why Configuration Management? • • • • Account for ALL IT assets Provide accurate information to support other Service Management processes Provide a sound basis for all other Service Management disciplines Verify records against the infrastructure and to correct exceptions Slide 42 .
Tools and resource requirements • Identification . Under Repair.Relationships • Control .The reporting of all current and historical data of each CI Ordered. scope. modifications and removal of CIs • Status Accounting . identification and labelling of all CIs .Reviews and audits to verify physical existence of CIs Slide 43 . Live.Strategy. activities and procedures . policy.CMDB. • Verification & Auditing .Config Mgt processes. Test ……. objective.Authorised additions. Relationships with other processes and 3rd parties . roles & responsibilities .Selection.5 Activities of Configuration Management • Planning .
capturing both structure and details Slide 44 .Key Considerations • Configuration Items (CIs) Component of an infrastructure that is (or is to be) under the control of Configuration Management • Configuration Management Database (CMDB) A database that contains all relevant details of each CI and details of the important relationships between CIs • Base Level The lowest level at which CIs are uniquely identified • Baseline – A SNAPSHOT The configuration of a product or system established at a specific point in time.
Example Software Structure Software System Application 1 Programme A Application 2 Application 3 Programme C Programme B Module 1 Subroutine 1 Slide 45 Subroutine 2 BASE LEVEL (CI Level) The lowest level at which CI’s are uniquely identified .
Version Number .Status .Name .VARIANTS Slide 46 .Supplier .CI History .Attributes • Attributes .Place / location .CI Type ID .Model / type identification .Unique Identifier .Relationships .
.applies to. ..Relationships • Relationships . (CI’s related to service) .is connected to..is used for. documentation) ....is a version of... ..... (MS Dictionary English vs.. ..is a parent/child of.g.(e.... Dutch) Any others that are meaningful and useful to the organisation can be used Slide 47 .is a variant of..
Actual implementation may take much longer.Benefits • • • Provides accurate information on CIs and their documentation to support all other Service Management disciplines Facilitates adherence to legal and contractual obligations Improves security by controlling the versions of CIs in use Setting up Configuration Management The planning process for setting up could take up to 6 months. but the benefits of Configuration Management should outweigh the cost Slide 48 .
tested. delivered. installed.CFig Exam Tips • •The key to configuration management is that it identifies RELATIONSHIPS between CI’s • •Configuration Activities Planning Identification of Configuration item (CI) Control Status Accounting (ordered. retired) Verification & Audit • •Configuration Management Database Hardware Software Documentation IT Staff Slide 49 . under repair.
g. Keyboard CI may have French and English variants • • • • Slide 50 .Exam Tips Continued • Documentation CI’s Processes and Procedures Technical Documentation Organisational Charts / Diagrams All CI’s have a number of ATTRIBUTES CIS’s ALWAYS have Unique ID and CI Type ID attributes Base Level lowest level a CI is uniquely identified Baseline = Snapshot of CMDB structure and detail CI Variant is an additional CI attribute e.
Exam Questions • What information does Configuration Mgt provide to the IT management of an organisation? A Variations from agreed service levels (IM) B Time spent on investigation and diagnosis by each support group (IM) C Number of incidents and problems per category (IM) D Details and history of the IT infrastructure Slide 51 .
Exam Questions • A Configuration Management Database (CMDB) can contain different Configuration Items (CIs). Which of the items below would NOT normally be regarded as a CI? A user name A video monitor (SW) A bought-in software package (HW) A procedure (DOC) A B C D Slide 52 .
Exam Questions • What is the main difference between a CMDB (Configuration Management Database) and a typical asset register? A CMDB is a computerised system – most asset registers are not There is no difference Only hardware and software is recorded in a CMDB A CMDB is a database that shows the relationships between items A B C D Slide 53 .
4 & 5 1&4 All of them .2.Exam Questions • 1 2 3 4 5 A B C D Slide 54 Which of the following can be regarded as CIs? Hardware Documentation Staff (NOT USERS) Software Network components 1.4 & 5 1.
Incident Management Slide 55 .
Goal . thus ensuring that the best achievable levels of availability and service are maintained Slide 56 .Primary Objective • To restore normal service operation as quickly as possible with minimum disruption to the business.
or may cause an interruption to.Why Incident Management • Ensure the best use of resource to support the business • Develop and maintain meaningful records relating to incidents • Devise and apply a consistent approach to all incidents reported Incident Definition An incident is an event which is not part of the standard operation of a service and which causes. or a reduction in the quality of that service Slide 57 .
Incident Lifecycle Slide 58 .
Impact.e.g.The likely effect the incident will have on the business (e.Assessment of the speed with which an incident or problem requires resolution (i.the relative sequence in which an incident or problem needs to be resolved. magnitude) • URGENCY . based on impact and urgency Slide 59 . Urgency & Priority • IMPACT . how much delay will the resolution bear) • PRIORITY . numbers affected.
Use of Support Teams Slide 60 .
IT Service Manager
Service Desk Manager
2nd Line Manager
3rd Line Manager
Service Desk Support Team
2nd Line Support Team Functional (competence)
3rd Line Support Team
Relationship between incidents, Problem and Known Errors
Incident Error in infrastructure Problem Known Error RFC Structural Resolution
Handling of Major Incidents
Major incidents occur when there is extreme impact to the Users. Problem Management should be notified to arrange a formal meeting. The Service Desk will ensure Incident records are maintained with all actions and decisions.
• • • • • • Reduced business impact of Incidents by timely resolution Improved monitoring of performance against targets Elimination of lost Incidents and Service Requests More accurate CMDB information Improved User satisfaction Less disruption to both IT support staff and Users
Possible Problems • • • • • • Lack of Management commitment Lack of agreed Customer service levels Lack of knowledge or resources for resolving incidents Poorly integrated processes Unsuitable software tools Users and IT staff bypassing the process Slide 64 .
IM Exam Tips • • • Restoring services is a PRIMARY objective of Incident Management ALL calls should be logged Incident .Change Slide 65 .Problem .Known Error .
Exam Questions • Salesmen are able to use their laptops from hotels to obtain information on travel routes and travelling times. Release & Problem Management Only Configuration. communication was unsatisfactory. Release & Configuration Management Only Problem & Release Management Slide 66 . Configuration. Which processes other than Incident Management are involved in achieving a structural solution? A B C D E Change. On several occasions they have found that when a certain modem had been installed. Problem & Release Management Only Change & Release Management Only Change. A temporary solution to this fault has been identified.
Which of the following activities will contribute most to cutting down the percentage of regularly recurring incidents? A A presentation to the board of directors to explain the importance of Problem Management B Implementation of the Problem Management process C The selection of an appropriate tool to log all incident data more accurately D The introduction of a single Service Desk number so customers know who to contact Slide 67 .Exam Questions • A trend analysis of incident data that over 30% of incidents regularly recur.
Exam Questions • Which of the following data is least likely to be used in the incident control process? A B C D Incident category Make/model of faulty item Impact code Cost of faulty item Slide 68 .
Exam Questions • If a customer complains that service levels are below those agreed in the SLA. apparently due to a number of related hardware incidents. who is responsible for ensuring the cause is investigated? A B C D The Incident Manager The Capacity Manager The Problem Manager The Availability Manager Slide 69 .
Problem Management Slide 70 .
Problems and Errors Slide 71 .Goal – Primary Objective • To minimise the adverse effect on the business of Incidents and Problems caused by errors in the infrastructure and to proactively prevent the occurrence of Incidents.
It will become a Known Error when the root cause is known and a temporary work around or a permanent alternative has been identified Slide 72 .Why Problem Management • Resolve Problems quickly and effectively • Ensure resources are prioritised to resolve Problems • Proactively identify and resolve Problems and Known Errors thus minimising Incident occurrence / recurrence • Improve the productivity of support staff Problems & Known Errors A Problem is the unknown underlying cause of one or more Incidents.
CM RRS User Incident One or More Incidents with Unknown Underlying cause Problem DB PROBLEM CONTROL SD/IM IM Incident DB Root Cause Known and Temp or Perm Fix found PM Known Error DB PM Raise RFC YES Business Case to FIX Known Error PM ERROR CONTROL NO Change Management Slide 73 STOP .Service Desk – IM – PM (PC) (EC) .
Activities • • • • • • Problem Control Error Control Major Incident Support Management Information Major Problem Reviews Proactive Problem Prevention Slide 74 .
Initiate process improvement .Ensure adherence to procedures .Raising RFC to prevent occurrence/recurrence .Provide feedback to testing.Recurring Problems per type or per component . training and documentation Slide 75 .Initiate education and training . documentation issues • Preventative Action .Post-Change occurrence of particular Problems .Proactive Activities • Trend Analysis .Training.
Benefits • • • • • Reduction in volume of Incidents Improved IT service quality Better first time fix rate at service desk Permanent solutions Improved organisation learning and awareness Slide 76 .
PM Exam Tips • • • • Unknown Underlying cause Root Cause with workaround Error Control Problem Control Slide 77 .
a Problem is not B There is no real difference between a Problem and a Known Error C In the case of a Known Error there is a fault in the IT infrastructure. with a Problem there is not D In the case of a Known Error the underlying cause of the Problem is known Slide 78 .Exam Question • What is the difference between a Problem and a Known Error? A A Known Error is always the result of an incident.
This change was also introduced in a monthly program that has not yet been run. The change involved extending the “stock number” field by two positions. which can then be changed D The errors are reported as Incidents and a Problem is identified. it is labelled as a Known Error that can be corrected by raising a Request for Change Slide 79 . This is probably due to an incorrect change in the software. are directly introduced as Changes C The errors are reported as Incidents to the Service Desk and after some research they are identified as Known Errors. What is the best possible solution to be adopted by Problem Management when handling the error? A The errors are reported and because the underlying cause is known. handled by Change Management as a Request for Change with the status of ‘urgent change’ B The errors are reported as problems at the Service Desk and because manufacturing is involved. After the cause of the error has been established and a temporary workaround found.Exam Question • A company has received messages concerning errors in the daily batch run which handles the ordering of raw materials for the manufacturing process. The situation needs to be corrected very quickly to avoid affecting manufacturing.
Change Management Slide 80 .
Goal – Primary Objective • To ensure that standardised methods and procedures are used for efficient and prompt handling of all Changes. in order to minimise the adverse impact of any Change-related incidents upon service quality Slide 81 .
Responsibilities • Raising and recording Changes • Assessing the impact. benefit. resource requirements and risk of proposed Changes • Developing business justification and obtaining approval • Managing and coordinating Change implementations • Monitoring and reporting on the implementation • Reviewing and closing Requests for Change (RFC) Slide 82 . cost.
Why Change Management • • • Ensure Standard methods used for all changes Facilitate prompt handling of changes Keep a balance between the need for change and the potential detrimental impact of change Slide 83 .
Low … (Urgent?) .g. Major • Urgent Change .Category: Based on business impact Minor. Medium.An accepted solution to an identifiable and relatively common set of requirements (e.A change that needs to be implemented more quickly • Standard Change .Priority: Based on Impact+Urgency High.Types of Change • Basic Change . Password reset) Slide 84 . Significant. set up of User profile.
devises back-out & testing plans Implement change using appropriate Standard Change model major Change Manager Circulates RFCs to Board members Senior management / board level Approve / reject Changes (Financial / Technical / Business) Closed Change Manager Change review Change Manager Co-ordinates Change implementation Independent tester Tests Changes Slide 85 Slide 85 . reports action to CAB Change Builder Builds Change.Change Control Process – Basic (normal) Start Change Manager Filters requests Change Manager Allocates initial priority significant Change Manager Circulates RFCs to CAB members Senior management / board level Approve / reject Changes (Financial / Technical / Business) Change Manager Decide category and/or use of standard model minor Change Manager Approves / rejects and schedules Changes.
Change Control Process . devises back-out & testing plans CAB or CAB / EC Quickly assesses impact resources and urgency Change Manager Ensures records are brought up to date Change Manager Review Change Closed Slide 86 Slide 86 .Urgent Start Change Manager Filters requests Change Manager Allocates initial priority Change Manager Calls CAB or CAB / EC meeting Change Manager Co-ordinates Change implementation Independent tester Urgent testing Change Builder Builds Change.
Y/N? Backout Review Close RFC Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 Slide 87 .Change Process RFC Registration Acceptance Priority (Urgent?) Category Impact Assessment Authorisation & Schedule Build Test Implement OK .
Considerations • Change Advisory Board (CAB) . Significant) .Meetings held on a regular basis CAB / Emergency Committee (CAB/EC) .Mandatory assessment of RFC . Major.Responsibility for impact assessment of urgent changes Forward Schedule of Changes (FSC) Projected Service Availability (PSA) based on FSC • • • Slide 88 .RFC are circulated to selected members depending on Change Category (Minor.Optional attendance of CAB meeting .
technical impact and risk assessment • Improved productivity of Users through less disruption and higher quality of service • Better assessment of the cost of proposed changes • Greater ability to absorb a large volume of change Slide 89 .Benefits • Increased visibility and communication of changes to both business and service support staff • Reduced adverse impact of change from improved business.
CH Exam Tips • • • Basic and Urgent Change Control Process Change is associated with RISK CAB Members ► Problem Manager ► Change Manager ► Customer Representatives Slide 90 .
Exam Question • When can the building. as soon as the Request for Change has been classified B As soon as there is a back-out plan for the change C As soon as the impact analysis has been discussed by the members of the Change Advisory Board D As soon as the Request for Change has been formally authorised Slide 91 . testing and implementation of a change begin? A If it is urgent.
Exam Question • A B C D How frequently should CAB/EC meeting be held? Daily Monthly Weekly As required Slide 92 .
Exam Question Consider the following statements: 1 Effective Change Management ensures that urgency and impact are keys to decisions made on the scheduling of changes 2 Change Management controls all aspects of the change process • A B C D Which of these statements is true? 1 Neither of them 2 Both of them Slide 93 .
Release Management Slide 94 .
Goal – Primary Objective • To take an holistic (Overall) view of a Change to an IT service and ensure that all aspects of a release. both technical and nontechnical are considered together Slide 95 .
There may be one document per organisation or an umbrella set of guidelines and specific details for each supported service Slide 96 .Why Release Management • • • • Manage large or critical hardware roll-outs Manage major software roll-outs Bundling or batching related sets of changes Control the release of authorised CIs into the supported environment Release Policy A release policy document should be produced to clarify the roles and responsibilities for Release Management.
Responsibilities of Release Management Development Environment Controlled Test Environment Live Environment RELEASE MANAGEMENT Release Policy Release Planning Develop or purchase software Build / configure release Fit for purpose testing Release acceptance Roll out planning Distribution Communication & installation preparation & training Configuration Management Database (CMDB) and Definitive Software Library (DSL) Slide 97 .
A Physical library or storage repository where master copies of software versions are kept. Full and Package Definitions Release: a collection of authorised Changes to an IT Service Release Unit: the portion of the IT infrastructure that is normally released together Roll-out: deliver.Delta. This one logical store may consist of one or more physical software libraries or file stores.Terminology • Definitive Software Library (DSL) Definitive Software Library – where ALL authorised versions of software are stored and protected. Types of Release . • • Definitive Hardware Store (DHS) Definitive Hardware Store – An area set aside for the secure storage of definitive hardware spares. install and commission an integrated set of new or changed CIs across logical or physical parts of an organisation Slide 98 .
Package Individual Releases both Full and Delta are grouped together to form a Package for release. distributed and implemented together (whether they have changed or not). tested. Full All components of the Release are built. • • Slide 99 .Types of Release • Delta Only those CI’s that have actually changed since last release are included.
Back out plans should be devised and tested as part of the release.Build Management • • • • • • Software and Hardware components for release should be assembled in a controlled. Slide . reproducible manner. Without Change and Configuration Management. Change Management allows CMDB to remain accurate. Without Configuration data change impacts are not accurately assessable. Build Management becomes the responsibility of Release management from the controlled test environment on wards. Releases will not be controlable.
Possible Problems • • • • • Resistance from Staff to new procedures Circumvention of procedures Unclear ownership and role acceptance Lack of understanding of release contents Reluctance to back out of a failing release. Slide .
Benefits • Improved service quality from greater success rate for releases and minimal disruption to the business • Greater ability to cope with high levels of Change • Assurance that hardware and software in live use is of known quality. wrong or unauthorised software being in use • Better expectation setting for Business and Service staff Slide . reducing the chance of illegal.
RM Exam Tips • • Release is associated with ROLLOUT Urgent Software releases do not require FULL testing Slide .
Exam Questions • One of Release Management’s tasks is to set up a DHS. Which statement most closely describes the DHS? A A DHS is a number of physical locations where baselines are stored B Before setting up a DHS a tool should first be purchased for releasing the hardware into the environment C A DHS is an area set aside for the secure storage of definitive hardware spares D A DHS is a database in which all definitive hardware Configuration Items are recorded Slide .
Which one of these following statements is true? A B C D A Package release contains hardware and software Urgent changes are always Delta releases A Delta release is only ever part of a Package release A Full release releases the ‘normal release unit’ into the live environment Slide . Full and Package describe different types of release.Exam Question • The words Delta.
• Students at a college can send in their course work from their home PC via the telephone Network. They can then check their results on their PCs. A student needs an existing set of programs that can be configured for the particular course that the student is following. Which process is responsible for the correct configuring and transmission of the programs? A B C D Release Management Change Management Configuration Management Network Management
Service Level Management
Goal – Primary Objective
• • • • • • To maintain and gradually improve business aligned IT service quality, through a constant cycle of Defining Agreeing Monitoring Reporting Reviewing IT service achievements and through instigating actions to eradicate unacceptable levels of service
• • • • • • Produce and maintain the Service Catalogue Negotiate and agree service levels Measure and report actual service levels against targets Maintain service levels in line with business requirements Co-ordinate other ITSM functions and suppliers Review all agreements and contracts against changing business need • Proactively improve Service Levels
Terminology • • • • • • Service Catalogue (ARGOS Catalogue) Service Level Requirements (SLR) – Amounts Availability. Service Level Agreement (SLA) – Document Client/Supplier Operational Level Agreement (OLA) – Document Internal Underpinning Contract (UC) – Document 3rd Party Suppliers Service Improvement Programme (SIP) – To Maintain Business alignment Slide .. Response Time …….
in relation to a specific Customer group Slide .Covering all SLM issues relevant to the particular Customer group. regardless of the service being used • Service Level .Covering all generic SLM issues appropriate to every Customer throughout the organisation • Customer level .Covering all SLM issues relevant to the specific service.Structure of SLAs Some organisations adopt a multi-layer structure: • Corporate Level .
Structure of SLM Customers Customer Customer Customer SLA IT Service IT Service Department IT Systems IT Systems Supplier & Maintenance OLA UC Internal External Slide .
Escalation Path Slide .Glossary of terms .Support .Change .Transaction Response Times .Charging .Introduction .Security .Reliability .Batch turnaround times .SLA Contents Examples .Service Hours .Availability % .IT Service Continuity .Service Reporting and Reviewing .Throughput .
Benefits • Actual service delivered measured against targets • Allows Customer to weigh service against charges (Value for Money) • Potential cost reduction in long term • Agreed conflict resolution route • Less unpredictable demands • Improved customer relations Slide .
SLM Exam Tips • Negotiate and Agree Slide .
Exam Question • Which of the following are direct advantages of entering into Service Level Agreements? 1 The expectations of both the IT customer and the provider should be aligned 2 Fewer incidents will occur 3 Unambiguous measurements of service provision will be provided 4 The number of changes that have to be backed out will decrease A B C D 2&4 1&2 3&4 1&3 Slide .
Financial ManagementAvailability Management Capacity Management IT Service Continuity Management Slide .
Financial Management for IT Services Slide .
Goal – Primary Objective • To provide cost-effective stewardship (management) of (ALL) the IT assets and financial resources used in Services Slide .
Why Financial Management • Identify the actual cost of services provided • Provide accurate and vital financial information to assist in decision making • Make Customers aware of what services actually cost TCO • Assist in the assessment and management of changes • Help influence customer behaviour • Positioning for charging Slide .
Concepts • Accounting and Budgeting (mandatory) .Account for monetary spend over given period • Charging (optional) .Prediction of future costs .Understand costs involved in providing a service .Operate IT Division as a business unit if required Slide .Recovery of service costs from Customer .monitor actual against predicted costs .
IT Financial Cycle Business IT Requirements IT Operational Plan (inc. Budgets) Cost Analysis (Accounting) Charges Financial Targets Costing Models Charging Policies Feedback of proposed charges to business (effects behaviour) Slide .
Cost Model The Cost Model will consist of COST ELEMENTS COST TYPE COST CATEGORISATION Capital OR Operational Direct OR Indirect Fixed OR Variable • • • • • • Slide Transfer (Cross Charges) Hardware External Services Software People Accommodation .
wages. expenses that are apportioned and added to the cost of each service. DIRECT COST – Directly attributable. • • Slide . ABSORBED OVERHEADS – Total cost of indirect materials and expenses that are NOT passed onto the customer.Key elements in determining the cost of a service • • INDIRECT COSTS – NOT directly attributable but shared. UNABSORBED OVERHEADS – Total cost of Indirect materials.
fair and realistic Charging mechanism to support policy Price=cost Price=cost +/-X% Price is comparable with other internal groups (internal X charge rate) Price matches that charged by external suppliers (open market price) Set price is agreed for a set period based on anticipated usage Cost: Cost plus: Going rate: Market rate: Fixed Price: Slide .Charging • • • Based against Organisational policy on IT .overhead / break even / profit centre Prices should be simple. understandable.
Benefits • • • • • • • • Reduced long term costs Increased confidence in managing budgets Accurate cost information More efficient use of IT Ensuring funds are available to provide service Enables the recovery of costs Influences customer behaviour Allows comparison with alternative providers Slide .
cost centre or department because it has been apportioned. • • • • • • Slide . Direct cost can be traced in full to a product or service.g.Fin Exam Tips • ABC of Finance Accounting (MAN) Budgeting (MAN) Charging (OPT) You must have a cost model before you can charge Charging shows Total Cost of Ownership THE SPA – Cost Types Overhead or indirect cost total cost of indirect materials wages and expenses. cost centre or department e. Wages Indirect Cost cannot be traced directly in full to product or service.
Exam Questions • Without a good Accounting System you cannot: 1 Know the full cost of services provided 2 Judge the efficiency of Problem Management 3 Recover costs related to usage. should you wish Which of the above is true? A 1.2 & 3 B 1 & 3 only C 1 & 2 only Note! The question is asking you is 2 or 3 correct as 1 appears in all answers and must be correct. Slide .
Exam Questions • Consider the following statements: 1. Customers should always be invoiced for the IT services they use 2. The only reason services are charged for is to make customers aware of the costs involved in using those services A B C D Both Only 1 Neither Only 2 Slide .
Exam Questions • Which of the following is NOT the concern of IT Financial Management? A Telephone charges B Invoicing C Differential Charging (High and Low Tariffs) – Demand Management Method used in CAPACITY MANAGEMENT D Reviewing IT service quality Slide .
Exam Questions • Which of the following statements on IT Financial Management is correct? A An IT Financial Manager identifies the costs incurred by IT and might propose prices for the services supplied B In order to set up Budgeting and Accounting. SLA’s and OLA’s need to have been agreed C It is only possible to be cost conscious if the customer is charged for services (hinting at TCO) D IT Financial Management must agree charges with the customer before establishing a Cost Model (Cost Model comes before charging) Slide .
Availability Management Slide .
Goal – Primary Objective • To optimise the capability of the IT infrastructure and supporting organisations to deliver a cost effective and sustained level of availability that enables the business to satisfy its objectives Slide .
it is still possible to achieve business & end user satisfaction Improving availability begins when it is understood how IT services integrate with and support the business • Slide .Principles • • Availability is at the core of business & end user satisfaction When things go wrong.
Why Availability Management • • To ensure services are available when the customer needs them Influences ► Business Demand ► Cost required to meet demand Complexity of IT Infrastructure ► Levels of Redundancy ► Reliability of the Infrastructure ► Level of Maintenance Processes and procedures used by Services Human Factors ► Skill sets • • • Slide .
Component Failure Impact Analysis (CFIA) .Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) Slide .Responsibilities • • • • • • • Determine availability requirements in business terms Predict and design for expected levels of availability Optimise availability through monitoring and reporting Produce Availability Plan – Long term for proactive improvement Ensure SLAs are met and monitor OLA/UC availability obligations Manage Service Outage Analysis (SOA) Produce and maintain: .
Availability (CIA) Slide . Integrity.Related to Resource Capacity Management Security .Confidentiality.Considerations • • • • • • Availability Reliability Managed through OLAs Maintainability Managed through UCs Serviceability Resilience .
ITAMM – IT Availability Metrics Model • • • Range of metrics and perspectives that should be considered when establishing Measurement and Reporting Measurements need to be meaningful and add value Consider WHAT you measure and HOW you report it Slide .
Expanded Incident ‘lifecycle’ DOWNTIME or MeanTime To Repair (M)TTR Incident Detection Diagnosis Repair Recovery Restoration Incident UPTIME or MeanTime Between Failures (M)TBF Time between system incidents (M)TBSI Time Slide .
It would be necessary to consider both what is measured and how it is reported Slide .DT AST X 100 Further considerations: • Components in series or parallel • Weighting per number of users affected • Weighting per criticality period Measuring Availability Measurements need to be meaningful and add value to the IT and business organisation.Calculating Availability % Availability = AST .
Benefits • • • • • Services are designed and managed to meet specified business availability requirements Shortfalls in levels of availability are identified and corrective actions taken Frequency and duration of IT failures is reduced Availability levels are measured to fully support Service Level Management BUSINESS VALUE! ► Effective Availability Management will influence customer satisfaction and determine the perceived Reliability of the business on the market Slide .
Integrity and Availability) Slide .AM Exam Tips • • • • • Remember the ABILITY RELIABILITY MAINTAINABILITY SERVICEABILITY But NOT VULNERABIILITY (ITSCM) CIA (Confidentiality.
2 & 3 D Only 1 & 3 Note ! 1 is definitely correct and 3 is definitely wrong (SLM) 2 is disguised!!!! Slide .. Negotiating availability levels with customers Which of these is correct? A Only 2 & 3 B Only 1 & 2 C 1. Understanding the reliability of components to carry out a required function under given conditions over a certain period of time 2. 1.Exam Questions • Availability Management is responsible for ………. The ease with which maintenance (Maintainability) of service components can be carried out 3.
Exam Questions • Percentage availability is calculated as: A DT * 100 C (AST – DT) * 100 ---------------------------------AST AST B AST * 100 D AST --------------------------------DT (AST – DT) * 100 Note! It just is – Remember it! Treat it as a gift (100 – 20) * 100 -----------= 80% 100 Slide .
Integrity. what do the letters CIA stand for? Component Impact Analysis (ITSCM) Confidentiality.Exam Questions • In Availability Management terms. Availability Configuration Item Availability Central Intelligence Agency (A contradiction in terms) A B C D Slide .
Exam Questions • Managing service availability is now more important than ever because …… A The dependence (Reliability – prevention of failure) of customers on their IT has grown B System Management tools can now provide much more real time performance management information C More IT systems are outsourced D More service providers now have Service Level Agreements with their customers Slide .
Capacity Management Slide .
The future business requirements (the required service delivery) .Goal – Primary Objective • To understand: .The IT infrastructure (the means of service delivery) • Ensure that all current and future capacity and aspects of the business requirements are provided cost effectively Slide .The organisation’s operation (the current delivery) .
Why Capacity Management • • • • • Monitor the performance and throughput of IT services Tuning activities to make efficient use of resources Understand the current demands for IT services and produce forecasts for future requirements Help to influence demands for IT resources Production of a Capacity Plan predicting the IT resources needed to achieve agreed or proposed service levels Slide .
Success Factors • • • • • Accurate business forecasts Understanding of current and future technology Ability to demonstrate cost effectiveness Interaction with other Service Management processes Ability to plan for and implement appropriate IT capacity to match business requirements and predictions Slide .
Managing performance of IT services delivered to customers and documented in SLAs Resource Capacity management (RCM) .Responsibilities of Capacity Management • Business Capacity management (BCM) .Management of components ensuring that all resources are monitored & measured • • Slide .Ensuring future business requirements for IT services are considered and matched to capability Service Capacity Management (SCM) .
SLA’s • Future service levels ans SLR’s • Business Plan and Capacity Plan • Modelling Techniques Analytical Simulation Trending Baselining • Application Sizing Slide . • Existing Service Levels..Business Capacity Management Planning Future Business requirements Requires a knowledge of….
• Service Levels and SLA’s • Service throughput and performance • Tuning and demand management Slide .Service Capacity Management Monitors and Measures services Requires a knowledge of …..
Resource Capacity Management Management of Components of IT Infrastructure Requires a knowledge of …. • Current technology and utilisation • Future alternative technologies • Resilience of systems and services Slide ..
Service data .Utilisation data May form part of the CMDB • Slide .Financial data .Business data .Capacity Management Database (CDB) • • Forms the basis for the production of all Capacity management reporting May consist of many physical data stores covering: .Technical data .
Iterative Activities – The Cycle Tune Implement Analyse Monitor Slide .
Iterative Activities – Inputs Tune Implement Analyse Monitor Resource Utilisation Thresholds SLM Thresholds Capacity Management DB Slide .
Iterative Activities – Outputs Tune Implement Analyse Monitor Capacity Management DB Slide SLM Exception Reports Resource Utilisation Exception Reports .
Simulation Modelling . .Other Activities • • Demand Management – Differential Charging and Lock out Modelling .Analytical Modelling .Baseline Modelling Application Sizing Production of the Capacity Plan Capacity planning is essentially a balancing act: • Cost against Capacity • Supply against Demand • • Slide .Trend Analysis.
Benefits of Capacity Management • • • • • • • Increased efficiently and cost savings resulting in more economic provision of IT services Elimination of unnecessary spare capacity Elimination of panic buying Possibility for deferred expenditure Reduced risk of performance Problems and failures More confident and improved forecasting Improved awareness of capacity issues within the development cycle Slide .
CM Exam Tips • • • • Business Capacity Management .future business requirements Service Capacity Management – current service delivery Resource Capacity Management – underlying resource components Demand Management – Differential Charging ► Modelling ► ► ► ► Tuning Analytical Simulation Baseline (what if?) • • Application sizing There are capacity threshold that generate alerts! Slide .
Exam Questions • Application Sizing is a technique used by Capacity Management. Why is Application Sizing Important? A The availability of an IT service can be measured (AM) B The use of an IT application can be controlled C The maintenance of technical skills is important to application developers D The resources needed (RCM) for an application and its performance can be predicted (BCM) Slide .
.Exam Questions • A B C D Differential Charging is a technique used in ………. FTA (Fault Tree Analysis – ITSCM) Status Accounting (Configuration Management) Demand Management (Capacity Management – Varying Tariffs) CRAMM (ITSCM – Risk Analysis) Slide .
IT Service Continuity Management Slide .
Goal – Primary Objective • To support the overall Business Continuity management process by ensuring that the required IT technical services and facilities can be recovered within required and agreed business time-scales Slide .
Why Continuity Management • Ensuring business survival by reducing the impact of a disaster or major failure • Reducing the vulnerability and risk to the business by effective risk analysis and risk management • Preventing the loss of Customer and User confidence • Producing IT recovery plans that are integrated with and fully support the organisation’s overall Business Continuity Plan Slide .
revised and tested Slide .Considerations • IT Service Continuity options need to be understood and the most appropriate solution chosen in support of BCM requirements • Roles and responsibilities need to be identified and supported from a senior level • IT recovery plans and Business Continuity plans need to be aligned regularly reviewed.
Operational Management Slide .Implementation Stage 4 .The Business Continuity Life-cycle Overview • • • • Stage 1 – Initiation ► Initiate Business Continuity Manager Stage 2 – Requirements and Strategy Stage 3 .
Stage 2 – Requirements and Strategy Business Impact Analysis Identification of Critical Business Processes and Speed of Recovery Risk Assessment and Methodology Threats to Assets CRAMM – CCTA’s Risk Analysis Management Methodology (Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency) Business Continuity Strategy Based on Top Risks Slide .
Risk Analysis (CRAMM) ANALYSIS Assets Threats Vulnerabilities Risks MANAGEMENT Countermeasures Slide .
Risk Analysis • Asset Categorise and RANK 1-10 ► Hardware ► Software ► People ► Buildings etc. • Threat List and RANK 1-3 • Vulnerability against Assets Matrix RANK 1-3 Risk = Asset * Threats * Vulnerability Slide .
IT Recovery Options • • • • • • Do nothing Manual back-up – revert to pen and paper Reciprocal arrangements with another company Gradual recovery .Warm Standby Immediate recovery .Hot Standby Slide .Cold Standby Intermediate recovery .
Gradual Recovery – COLD standby • Time to recovery > 72hrs • Empty Computer space ► Remote ► Portable • Nothing in the rooms • Requires contracts / procedures in place to set up Slide .
Intermediate Recovery – WARM standby • Time to recovery 24hrs to 72hrs • Filled Computer space ► Remote ► Portable • Networked Computers but with NO Data Slide .
Immediate Recovery – HOT standby • Time to recovery “within the working day” 0hrs to 8hrs • Filled Computer Space ► Remote ► Portable • Networked Computers with Data (but not necessarily up to date) Slide .
Benefits of Continuity Management • Management of risk and the consequent reduction of the impact of failure • Fulfilment of regulatory requirements • Potentially lower insurance premiums • A more business focussed approach to IT continuity and recovery • Reduced business disruption during an incident • Increased customer confidence and organisational credibility Slide .
ISCM Exam Tips • Know the Disaster Recovery options Slide .
fire etc The impact (EFFECT) upon customers’ businesses Slide .Exam Questions • In relation to IT Service Continuity Planning. the severity of a disaster depends upon: A B C D The time of day it occurs How many people are available to assist in recovery The type of disaster. whether flood.
communications and environmental control equipment 2 The intermediate recovery external option is often shared between multiple customers and in the event of a disaster may not be available due to over-subscription A B C D Slide Both Neither Only 1 Only 2 . software. fully equipped with all the required hardware.Exam Questions • Consider the following statements about IT Service Continuity Planning: 1 The intermediate recovery external option offers a remote installation.
Within the ITIL definition. water. telecommunications equipment. a computer. support staff. water C A building. office space for technical staff B Stand-by generator. system manuals Slide .Exam Questions • Your organisation has just entered into a Gradual Recovery (Cold Standby) IT service Continuity Agreement. electricity. telecommunications equipment. documentation D A building. which of the following lists is INCORRECT for what you could find at the contingency site? A A building. telecommunications equipment. electricity. support staff. system manuals. support staff.
Exam Questions • Which of the following would you NOT expect to see in an IT Service Continuity Plan? A B C D Contact lists The version number Reference to change control procedures Full Service Level Agreements (SLM) Slide .