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Sampling:

Design and Procedures

11-2

Chapter Outline

1) Overview

2) Sample or Census

3) The Sampling Design Process

i. Define the Target Population

ii. Determine the Sampling Frame

iii. Select a Sampling Technique

iv. Determine the Sample Size

v. Execute the Sampling Process

11-3

Chapter Outline

4) A Classification of Sampling Techniques

i. Nonprobability Sampling Techniques

a. Convenience Sampling

b. Judgmental Sampling

c. Quota Sampling

d. Snowball Sampling

ii. Probability Sampling Techniques

a. Simple Random Sampling

b. Systematic Sampling

c. Stratified Sampling

d. Cluster Sampling

e. Other Probability Sampling Techniques

11-4

Chapter Outline

5. Choosing Nonprobability versus Probability

Sampling

6. Uses of Nonprobability versus Probability Sampling

7. International Marketing Research

8. Ethics in Marketing Research

9. Internet and Computer Applications

10. Focus On Burke

11. Summary

12. Key Terms and Concepts

11-5

Table 11.1

Type of Study

1. Budget

11-6

Fig. 11.1

Define the

Population

Determine the Sampling

Frame

Select Sampling Technique(s)

11-7

The target population is the collection of elements or objects

that possess the information sought by the researcher and

about which inferences are to be made. The target

population should be defined in terms of elements, sampling

units, extent, and time.

information is desired, e.g., the respondent.

A sampling unit is an element, or a unit containing the

element, that is available for selection at some stage of

the sampling process.

Extent refers to the geographical boundaries.

Time is the time period under consideration.

11-8

Important qualitative factors in determining the sample

size

decision larger the sample size)

the nature of the research (for exploratory research

designs the sample size is small)

the number of variables (to cover large number of

variables large sample size is required)

the nature of the analysis (for multivariate analysis

techniques large sample size is required)

sample sizes used in similar studies ( table :- next

slide; gives some indication of the sample size)

incidence rates ( eligible respondents)

completion rates (mailed questionnaire has less

completion rate)

resource constraints

Sample Sizes Used in Marketing

11-9

Research Studies

Table 11.2

Type of Study

Problem identificati

Classification of Sampling 11-10

Techniques

Fig. 11.2

Sampling

Techniques

Nonprobability Probability

Sampling Sampling

Techniques Techniques

Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling

Random Sampling Sampling Sampling Techniques

Sampling

11-11

Convenience Sampling

Convenience sampling attempts to obtain a

sample of convenient elements. Often,

respondents are selected because they happen

to be in the right place at the right time.

organizations

mall intercept interviews without qualifying the

respondents

department stores using charge account lists

“people on the street” interviews

11-12

Judgmental Sampling

Judgmental sampling is a form of

convenience sampling in which the population

elements are selected based on the judgment

of the researcher.

test markets

purchase engineers selected in industrial

marketing research

bellwether precincts selected in voting

behavior research

expert witnesses used in court

11-13

Quota Sampling

Quota sampling may be viewed as two-stage restricted

judgmental sampling.

The first stage consists of developing control categories, or

In the second stage, sample elements are selected based on

convenience or judgment.

Population Sample

composition composition

Control

Characteristic Percentage Percentage Number

Sex

Male 48 48 480

Female 52 52 520

____ ____ ____

100 100 1000

11-14

Snowball Sampling

In snowball sampling, an initial group of

respondents is selected, usually at random.

are asked to identify others who belong to

the target population of interest.

Subsequent respondents are selected based

on the referrals.

11-15

Each element in the population has a known

and equal probability of selection.

Each possible sample of a given size (n) has a

known and equal probability of being the

sample actually selected.

This implies that every element is selected

independently of every other element.

11-16

Systematic Sampling

The sample is chosen by selecting a random starting point

and then picking every ith element in succession from the

sampling frame.

The sampling interval, i, is determined by dividing the

population size N by the sample size n and rounding to the

nearest integer.

When the ordering of the elements is related to the

characteristic of interest, systematic sampling increases the

representativeness of the sample.

If the ordering of the elements produces a cyclical pattern,

systematic sampling may decrease the representativeness

of the sample.

For example, there are 100,000 elements in the population

and a sample of 1,000 is desired. In this case the sampling

interval, i, is 100. A random number between 1 and 100 is

selected. If, for example, this number is 23, the sample

consists of elements 23, 123, 223, 323, 423, 523, and so

on.

11-17

Stratified Sampling

A two-step process in which the population is

partitioned into subpopulations, or strata.

The strata should be mutually exclusive and

collectively exhaustive in that every

population element should be assigned to one

and only one stratum and no population

elements should be omitted.

Next, elements are selected from each stratum

by a random procedure, usually SRS.

A major objective of stratified sampling is to

increase precision without increasing cost.

11-18

Stratified Sampling

The elements within a stratum should be as homogeneous

as possible, but the elements in different strata should be

as heterogeneous as possible.

The stratification variables should also be closely related to

the characteristic of interest.

Finally, the variables should decrease the cost of the

stratification process by being easy to measure and apply.

In proportionate stratified sampling, the size of the sample

drawn from each stratum is proportionate to the relative

size of that stratum in the total population.

In disproportionate stratified sampling, the size of the

sample from each stratum is proportionate to the relative

size of that stratum and to the standard deviation of the

distribution of the characteristic of interest among all the

elements in that stratum.

11-19

Cluster Sampling

The target population is first divided into mutually exclusive

and collectively exhaustive subpopulations, or clusters.

Then a random sample of clusters is selected, based on a

probability sampling technique such as SRS.

For each selected cluster, either all the elements are included

in the sample (one-stage) or a sample of elements is drawn

probabilistically (two-stage).

Elements within a cluster should be as heterogeneous as

possible, but clusters themselves should be as homogeneous

as possible. Ideally, each cluster should be a small-scale

representation of the population.

In probability proportionate to size sampling, the clusters

are sampled with probability proportional to size. In the

second stage, the probability of selecting a sampling unit in a

selected cluster varies inversely with the size of the cluster.

11-20

Fig. 11.3 Cluster Sampling

Sampling Sampling Sampling

Sampling Proportionate

to Size Sampling

Strengths and Weaknesses of

11-21

Table 11.3

Technique Strengths Weaknesses

Nonprobability Sampling Least expensive, least Selection bias, sample not

Convenience sampling time-consuming, most representative, not recommended for

convenient descriptive or causal research

Judgmental sampling Low cost, convenient, Does not allow generalization,

not time-consuming subjective

Quota sampling Sample can be controlled Selection bias, no assurance of

for certain characteristics representativeness

Snowball sampling Can estimate rare Time-consuming

characteristics

Simple random sampling results projectable frame, expensive, lower precision,

(SRS) no assurance ofrepresentativeness.

Systematic sampling Can increase Can decreaserepresentativeness

representativeness,

easier to implement than

SRS, sampling frame not

necessary

Stratified sampling Include all important Difficult to select relevant

subpopulations, stratification variables, not feasible to

precision stratify on many variables, expensive

Cluster sampling Easy to implement, cost Imprecise, difficult to compute and

effective interpret results

Procedures for Drawing Probability

11-22

Samples

Fig. 11.4

Simple Random

Sampling

2. Each element is assigned a number from 1 to N

(pop. size)

3. Generate n (sample size) different random

numbers

between 1 and N

4. The numbers generated denote the elements

that

Procedures for Drawing

11-23

Probability Samples

Fig. 11.4 cont. Systematic

Sampling

2. Each element is assigned a number from 1 to N (pop.

size)

3. Determine the sampling interval i:i=N/n. If i is a

fraction,

round to the nearest integer

4. Select a random number, r, between 1 and i, as

explained in

simple random sampling

5. The elements with the following numbers will

comprise the

Procedures for Drawing

11-24

Probability Samples

Fig. 11.4 cont. Stratified

Sampling

2. Select the stratification variable(s) and the number of

strata, H

3. Divide the entire population into H strata. Based on the

classification variable, each element of the population is

assigned

to one of the H strata

4. In each stratum, number the elements from 1 to Nh (the

pop.

size of stratum h)

5. Determine the sample

H

nh = nsize of each stratum, nh, based on

proportionate or disproportionate stratified sampling,

where h=1

Procedures for Drawing

11-25

Fig. 11.4 cont. Sampling

population

2. Divide the population into C clusters of which c will be

included in

the sample

3. Calculate the sampling interval i, i=N/c (round to nearest

integer)

4. Select a random number r between 1 and i, as explained

in simple

random sampling

5. Identify elements with the following numbers:

r,r+i,r+2i,... r+(c-1)i

6. Select the clusters that contain the identified elements

7. Select sampling units within each selected cluster based

on SRS

or systematic sampling

Procedures for Drawing Probability

11-26

Samples

Fig. 11.4 cont.

Cluster

Sampling

clusters has a population less than the

sampling interval. If b clusters have been

selected with certainty, select the remaining

c-b clusters according to steps 1 through 7.

The fraction of units to be sampled with

certainty is the overall sampling fraction = n/N.

Thus, for clusters selected with certainty, we

would select ns=(n/N)(N1+N2+...+Nb) units. The

units selected from clusters selected under

PPS sampling will therefore be n*=n- ns.

Choosing Nonprobability vs.

11-27

Probability Sampling

Table 11.4 cont.

Factors

Nature of research

Tennis' Systematic Sampling Returns a

11-28

Smash

gain a better understanding of its market. Systematic

sampling was employed to select a sample of 1,472

subscribers from the publication's domestic circulation list. If

we assume that the subscriber list had 1,472,000 names, the

sampling interval would be 1,000 (1,472,000/1,472). A

number from 1 to 1,000 was drawn at random. Beginning with

that number, every 1,000th subscriber was selected.

an incentive to respondents. An alert postcard was mailed one

week before the survey. A second, follow-up, questionnaire

was sent to the whole sample ten days after the initial

questionnaire. There were 76 post office returns, so the net

effective mailing was 1,396. Six weeks after the first mailing,

778 completed questionnaires were returned, yielding a

response rate of 56%.

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