REASONING

INFERENCE

is an act of justifying something done y is a mental activity wherein the mind proceeds to the certain knowledge or certain establishment of another truth through inferential process
y

REASONING

y

y y y y

inferential thinking is a composite of premises wherein the unknown can be inferred what is inferred is the conclusion it begins with what we know called ³the known´ an inference therefore, is a process of drawing a conclusion from a premise judgment is reached indirectly through a third idea or the middle term or through a series of third related ideas

INFERENCE

an inferential link is the logical relationship between the premise and the conclusion y this is also known as logical necessity or logical force
y

Example: Major premise: Philanthropist is a lover of charity Minor Premise: But some generous people are philanthropists Conclusion: Therefore, Some generous people are lovers of charity.

INFERENCE

the following inference is fallacious because there is no sequence (inferential link) Major premise: Every angel is an immaterial creature Minor Premise: But cherubim¶s are angels Conclusion: Therefore, Seraphim¶s are immaterial creatures

INFERENCE

y

Deduction ± is an inferential process wherein the mind concludes with certainty from a universal/general principle/knowledge/judgment, to the particular (specific). The premises contain conclusive evidence for the truth of the conclusion.

Methods of Inference

y

Induction ± is an inferential thinking that concludes from individual, or particular to the universal. It claims that its premises furnish only some amount of probability but not certainty to its conclusion.

Methods of Inference

EXAMPLES: Deduction:
All influenza is caused by infection; This disease is influenza; It is caused by infection

Induction:
Students A, B, C«X, Y and Z are present; Students A, B, C«X, Y and Z are all members of the class; All members of the class are present.

Methods of Inference

Immediate Inference y springs directly from a single premise to a conclusion without the mediation of any other premise y a conclusion is drawn from a single premise y the given proposition is called the premise and the proposition deduced or inferred from it is called the conclusion

Kinds of Inference

Mediate Inference y the inferential process passes from one proposition to another through a medium y it is called the middle term or another proposition y there is not only a new proposition but a new truth which is drawn by the mind from the first proposition through a medium

Kinds of Inference

Mediate Inference y it is a mental process, it exists only in the mind y to represent the argument existing in the mind, it must be expressed by a syllogism
is an external representation of an argument it is a series of propositions; first, Major Premise; second, Minor Premise; third, the Conclusion the conclusion is necessarily derived from the two given premises

Kinds of Inference

Categorical Syllogism y Hypothetical Syllogism y Other Forms of Syllogism
y

Enthymeme Sorites Dilemma Epichereme Polysyllogism

Kinds of Syllogism

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