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A consciously coordinated social unit,

composed of two or more people, that functions
on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a
common goal or set of goals.
An organization has four essential elements

(a) Group of people

(b) Interacting with each other
(c ) In a structured manner
(d) Towards a common objective
What is Organisational
Organisational Behavior is a field of study that
investigate the impact that individual, group &
structure have on behavior within organisation, for
the purpose of applying such knowledge toward
improving an organisations effectiveness.
O.B. can be defined as the systematic study
of the actions and reactions of individuals,
groups and sub-systems.

O.B. is the study and understanding of

individual and group behaviour, patterns of
structure in order to to help improve
organizational performance and effectiveness
OB is a field of study
Means a distinct area of expertise with a common
body of knowledge

What does it study?

It studies three determinants of behaviour in
organisation Individuals, Groups & Structure

Applying such knowledge

OB applies knowledge about individuals, groups and
the effect of structure on behaviour in order to make
organisation work more effectively
Therefore –
OB is concerned with the study of what
people do in an organisation and how the
behaviour affects the performance of the
Elements of Organisational Behavior

1) People
2) Structure
3) Technology
4) Environment
Key forces affecting Organizational Behavior

•Jobs Organizational Behavior
•Societal pressure

•Computer hardware&software
Managers and their Internal and External Environments

External Environment Labour Market

Internal Environment
Cultural Individuals

EE Political
Govt. Roles & Managerial JOBS
Position Processes Tasks
Hierarchy Activities

logical Machines & other Social
Internal Environment
External Environment
Nature Of Organisational Behaviour

Organisational behaviour is an applied

behavioural science that is built on contributions
from a number of behavioural disciplines such as
psychology, sociology, social psychology,
anthropology and economics.
The Scope: (Subject area)

It is currently a growing field. It is concerned

with employment related situations. It
emphasizes behaviour as related to jobs,
work, absenteeism, productivity, human
performance & management.
Goals of Organizational Behavior

1) To Describe
2) To Understand
3) To Predict
4) To Control
Importance of OB
• Organisational behaviour offers several ideas to management as to
how human factor should be properly emphasised to achieve
organisational objectives.
• Organisational behaviour provides opportunity to management to
analyse human behaviour and prescribe means for shaping it to a
particular direction.
• Understanding Human Behaviour, Organisational behaviour provides
understanding the human behaviour in all directions in which the
human beings interact. Thus, organisational behaviour can be
understood at the individual level, interpersonal level, group level and
inter-group level.
Different Models Of Organizational

In this model disobedient employee will be

penalized. This model depend on power. This
model leads to tight control of employees at
work. In this environment employees become
depend on their authority, but they don’t respect
them. Employees feeling of insecurity,
frustration & aggression towards authorities are
the outcome of autocratic model
Custodial Model leads employees dependency
on the organization, rather then on the boss.
Employee depend on organization for their security
& welfare.

This model does not depend on power or money

but it is depend on leadership. In this model,
mgmts approach is to support the employee’s
job performance. This approach leads to
employees feeling of participation & task
involvement in the orgn. “We” feeling is created.
Employees are more strongly motivated than
earlier models.

Collegial model is a extension of supportive

model. This model depends on mgt’s. building a
feeling of partnership with employees. Managers
are seen as joint contributors rather than
bosses. Collegial model is more useful.
Egs. Providing canteen transport facilities
Providing common parking space
Arranging picnics for all
Autocratic Custodial Supportive Collegial
Basis of Power Economic Leadership Partnership
Model resources

Managerial- Authority Money Support Teamwork


Employee Dependence Dependence Participation Self-discipline

psychologica on boss on
l result organization

Employee Subsistence Security Status and Self-actualization

needs met (Basic) recognition

Performance Minimum Passive Awakened Moderate

result cooperation drives enthusiasm
S-O-B-C Model
S-O-B-C -- Model
 This model says that internal cognition that is
O leads to behavior B. S-B-C model emphasizes
the need to identify observable contingencies
(S & C) for the prediction & control of behavior
(B). S-O-B-C is the expended model which
recognizes the interactive nature of the
environment. (S & C) the persons cognition’s (O)
& the behavior itself (B)
• S-O-B-C stands for Stimulus, Organism(a person), Behavior and
• For the example:
• Stimulus: is any event that happens in the environment, it can be a
sound(like someone shouting) a scene(a car accident, a fight. etc...),
events(like recieving a paycheck).
• Organism: is a person, nothing more can be said about this, so in OB
you can consider that to be an employee or an employer.
• Behavior: the organism behavior and response in regards to the
stimulus( for example a child(Organism) may hit(Behavior) his
brother after seeing a violent movie(Stimulus).
• Consequence: is the the outcome that comes after the behavior, it
either reinforces(thus repeated) the behavior or punished(thus not
repeated). In the child example previously mentioned, his mother can
reprimand(scold) (Consequence: punishment) him for doing what he