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UNDERSTANDING THE SELF (GEC1)

College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine (CAVM)


Bachelor of Science in Agriculture (BSA)
Prepared by: Carmel Esther E. Casuga (Instructor 1)
Lesson 7: Supernaturals: Believe It or Not!

At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:


1.Identify various religious practices and beliefs;
2.Understand the self in relation with religious beliefs;
and
3.Explain ways of finding the meaning of life.
ACTIVITY: Art Recall

RECALL: When was the first time you realized that there is a
higher being than yourself? How old were you then? What
made you believe that there is a higher being?

DRAW: Make a poster about the instance or situation that


made you believe in the existence of higher being.
ACTIVITY: Art Recall

A. Discuss your drawings within your group by answering the


following questions:
1. How is the belief on higher being related to your self?
2. Do you consider having a spiritual self? Why or why not?
B. Choose a representative who will share what you have
discussed in the group to the class.
“set of cultural beliefs and practices that usually
includes some or all of the basic characteristics”
-Rebecca Stain, 2011
CHARACTERISTICS OF RELIGION:
1. A belief in anthropomorphic supernatural
being, such as spirit and gods.

2. A focus on the sacred supernatural, where


sacred refers to a feeling of reverence and awe.

3. The presence of supernatural power or energy


that is found on supernatural beings as well as
physical beings and objects.
CHARACTERISTICS OF RELIGION:
4. The performance of ritual activities that
involves the manipulation of sacred object to
communicate to supernatural beings and/or to
influence or control events.

5. The articulation of worldview and moral codes


through narratives and other means.
CHARACTERISTICS OF RELIGION:

6. Provide the creation and maintenance of


social bonds and mechanism of social control
within a community; provide explanation for
unknown and a sense of control for individuals.
 is the performance of ceremonial acts prescribed
by a tradition or sacred law (Brittanica, 2017)
 it is a specific, observable mode of behavior
exhibited by all known societies
CHARACTERISTICS OF RITUAL

A feeling or Dependence
emotion of upon a belief
respect, awe, system that is Symbolic in
fascination, usually relation to its
or dread in expressed in reference
relation to the the language
sacred of myth
SOME WORLD
RELIGIOUS
BELIEFS AND
PRACTICES
BUDDHISM
BELIEFS
Life is composed of
sufferings, pain and
frustrations.
Reactive cycle:
wanting and hating,
like and dislike,
craving and aversion
Meditation to break
the cycle
BUDDHISM
HISTORY
 Born from a noble
family, a king and a
queen (Nepal)
 Mother had a dream
 Made four trips at the
age of 29
Siddhartha Gautama  Found enlightenment in
meditation in a fig tree
at Gaya for 49 days
BUDDHISM
FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS
1. Dukkha- the truth of suffering
2. Samudaya- the truth of the
cause of suffering
3. Nirodha- the truth of the end
of suffering
4. Magga-the truth of the path
that leads to the end of
suffering
BUDDHISM

Dharma wheel/ Darma Chakra


The Eightfold Path or the Middle way
BUDDHISM
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
2 types of meditation
practices: samatha and
vipassana
Samatha: mindfulness of
breathing and development
of loving kindness
Vipassana: practices aim at
developing insight into reality
BUDDHISM
CELEBRATIONS

Paninirvana Day (February) Buddha/ Wesak Day (May)


BUDDHISM

Dharma Day (July) Padmasambhava Day (October)


BUDDHISM

Sangha Day (November)


CHRISTIANITY
HISTORY

5. Jesus
1. 63 BCE 3. Jesus
started
Kingdom born in
ministry at
of Judea Bethlehem
4. John the 30
2. Roman Baptist
occupation baptized
Jesus
CHRISTIANITY
6. Jesus 9.
arrested, Christianity
crucified, as official
and religion of
resurrected Rome
8. Vision of
Constantine

7. Spread
of
Christianity
CHRISTIANITY
BELIEFS
Trinitarian God: one
God in three
personas: God the
Father (Creator),
God the Son
(Savior), and God
the Holy Spirit
(Sustainer)
Holy Bible
CHRISTIANITY
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES

Sacrament of Baptism Sacrament of Communion


CHRISTIANITY
CELEBRATIONS

Christmas Resurrection
HINDUISM
HISTORY
Oldest practicing religion known
to human beings (6000-4000
BCE)
Indus-Valley River civilization
Aryans brought their own way of
knowing and religious practices:
roots
Least dogmatic
HINDUISM
BELIEFS
Hindus believe that
existence is a cycle of birth,
death and rebirth, governed
by Karma.
Karma is a concept where
the reincarnated life will
depend on how the past life
was spent.
HINDUISM
6 Basic Hindu Principles
1. Truth is eternal.
2. Brahman is Truth and Reality.
3. The Vedas are the ultimate authority.
4.Everyone should strive to achieve dharma.
5. Individual souls are immortal.
6. The goal of the individual soul is moksha.

Excerpt from “Hinduism for Dummies Cheat Sheet” by Amrutur V. Srinivasan


Brahman, One World Soul/God
Caste System
You are born into
the caste
depending on
your karma.
HINDUISM
CELEBRATIONS

Diwali Navrati
ISLAM
HISTORY

Visited by
Mohammed
Met a Greatest
was born Archangel
revelation
in year Christian Gabriel in
in year
in Syria Hira Cave
572 (610) 620
ISLAM
HISTORY

Back to
Ascends
Moved Mecca Muslims
to heaven
and
and to destroyed
grew in
descends Medina number
pagan
to earth
belief
ISLAM
BELIEFS
Muslims believe in Allah, who is their
“One God”
Ummah is a strong sense of community
Islam means “willing submission to God”
Quran is their holy book: 114 surahs
written and prayed in Arabic
Hadiths different accounts about
Mohammed’s life
ISLAM

CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES


Five pillars of Islam:
1. Shahadah- statement of faith: “ There is no God but the
one true God and Mohammed is the messenger.”
2. Salat- the prayer that is practiced five times a day
3. Zakat- the monetary offering for the benefit of the poor
4. Hajj- the yearly pilgrimage to Mecca
5. Sawm- the fasting from dawn to sunset during
Ramadan
ISLAM
CELEBRATIONS

Eidul-Fitr Eidul-Adha
JUDAISM
BELIEFS
The Jews believe in the God of Abraham, the
same God that liberated Hebrew slaves from
Egypt to Canaan, the Promised Land through
the leadership of Moses.
The Jews believe in the coming of the Messiah,
the Savior.
The sacred scripture is called the Torah or the
Law.
JUDAISM
HISTORY
Started with
Root of
Abraham’s Abraham Sons were
Christianity
covenant was tested circumcised
and Islam
with God

People Moses was


Abraham Pharaoh
became found by
left exiled the
slaves in Egyptian
Mesopotamia Hebrews
Egypt princess
JUDAISM
HISTORY

Moses led 10 Reached Kingdom


the people Command- Israel after was divided
out of Egypt ments 40 years in two

Babylonian
Assyrian 40,000
empire
empire exiles Hanukkah
destroyed
invaded returned to tradition
tower of
Israel Jerusalem
Solomon
The Ten
Commandments
JUDAISM
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES

Rosh Hashanah Yom Kippur


JUDAISM
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES

Pesach Shavuot
JUDAISM
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES

Sukkot
Religious beliefs, rituals, practices, and
customs are all part of the expression of the
spiritual self. What to believe and how to
manifest the belief is entirely dependent on
the individual, to the self.
FINDING AND CREATING MEANING OF LIFE
Psychotherapy introduced by Dr. Viktor Frankl
Believes that “man’s primary motivational force
is search for meaning”
Uses the philosophy of optimism in the face of
tragedy
BASIC CONCEPTS OF FRANKLIAN
PSYCHOLOGY

Life has meaning under all


circumstances.
Main motivation for living is
our will to find meaning in
life.
Freedom to find meaning.
LOGOTHERAPY ASSUMPTIONS

1.The human being is an entity consisting of


body, mind and spirit.

2. Life has meaning under all


circumstances, even the most miserable.

3. People have a will to meaning.


LOGOTHERAPY ASSUMPTIONS
4. People have freedom under all
circumstances to activate the will to find
meaning.

5. Life has a demand quality to which


people must respond if decisions are to be
meaningful.

6. The individual is unique.


FRANKL’S SOURCE OF MEANING

1.Purposeful work.
2.Courage in the face
of difficulty.
3.Love.
“The ultimate secret on the spiritual
foundation of life is that love is salvation
and joy eternity. The ultimate factor to
find the meaning of life is love.”
HOMEWORK
Reflect on Viktor Frankl’s sources of meaning of life.
What can you say about his philosophy? Which one/s do you
agree the most? Which one/s do you disagree the most? Explain
your answer.
Have you found yourself in a situation that made you question
your life’s meaning? How did you go about it?
At this point in time, what do you think is the meaning of your
life?
Encode your answers on a short bond paper with Calibri 12 as
your font. Use single spacing and 1 inch margin on all sides.
To be submitted on April 1, 2019 (Monday).