PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT

AND BIRTH

Prepared for: Dr. Nor Azian Md Noor Prepared by: Khadijah Qiaojuping ( G0831416) Suzlim Abdullah (G0810294)

PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND BIRTH
Prenatal development and birth

Prenatal development

Postpartum period

Birth

PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT
The course of prenatal development

Prenatal Develop ment

Teratology and hazards to prenatal development

Prenatal care Cultural beliefs about pregnancy Normal prenatal development

THE COURSE OF PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT
Three periods Three trimesters
First trimester (First three months)

The germinal period (1st 2 weeks) The embryonic period (2-8 weeks) First trimester
(First three months)

The fetal period (2-9 months)

First trimester (First three months) Second trimester (Middle three months) Third trimester (Last three months)

THE GERMINAL PERIOD (1ST 2
WEEKS)

THE EMBRYONIC PERIOD (2-8 WEEKS)
Digestive and respiratory systems

The endoderm

Three layers

The mesoderm The ectoderm

Circulatory system, bones, muscles, excretory system and reproductive system Nervous system, sensory receptors and skin parts

The Amnion

Lifesupport systems

The Umbilical cord The Placenta

THE PLACENTA AND UMBILICAL CORD

THE FETAL PERIOD
Become active, moving its arms and legs, opening and closing its mouth and moving its head A grasping reflex is present, and irregular breathing movements occur The fetus grow longer and gains substantial weight

3 months after conception

6 months after conception

8 months after conception

Prenatal development:video on prenatal dev.flv

ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE 

"Verily we created man from a drop of mingled sperm."
[AL-QUR'AN 76:2] 

"That He did create in pairs---male and female, from a seed when lodged (In its place)."
[AL-QUR'AN 53:45-46] 

"He makes you, in the wombs of your mothers, in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness.µ
[AL-QUR'AN 39:6] 

"Man we did create from a quintessence (of clay); then we placed him as (a drop of) sperm in a place of rest, firmly fixed; then we made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot we made a (fetus) lump; then we made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then we developed out of it another creature. So blessed be ALLAH, the best to create!"
[AL-QUR'AN 23:12-14]

ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE 

Was He not a drop of sperm emitted (In lowly form)? Then did he become a clinging clot; then did (Allah) make and fashion (him) in due proportion. And of him He made two sexes, male and female.´
[AL-QUR'AN 75:37-39] 

"Him who created thee, fashioned thee in due proportion, and gave thee a just bias; in whatever form He wills, does He put thee together.´
[AL-QUR'AN 82:7-8] 

"And He gave you (the faculties of) hearing and sight and feeling (and understanding)."
[AL-QUR'AN 32:9] 

"Verily we created man from a drop of mingled sperm, in order to try him: so we gave him (the gifts), of hearing and sight."
[AL-QUR'AN 76:2] 

"It is He who has created for you (the faculties of) hearing, sight, feeling and understanding: little thanks it is ye give!"
[AL-QUR'AN 23:78]

TERATOLOGY AND HAZARDS TO PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT 

Teratogen- refers to any environmental agent that cause damage during the prenatal period. It comes from the Greek word teras, meaning ´malformationµ or ´monstrosityµ. The field of study that investigates the causes of birth defects is called teratology. 

Prescription and Nonprescription Drugs

TERATOLOGY TO PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT

Fetal alcohol syndrome
1.Wide-set eyes 2.Flat bones 3.Thin upper lip

TERATOLOGY TO PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT

Fetal nicotine syndrome
1.Poor language 2.Cognitive skills 3.Attention disorder

HAZARDS TO PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT
Psychoactive and Illegal Drugs Incompatible Blood Types Maternal Diseases Maternal Diet and Nutrition Maternal Emotional States and Stress Maternal Age Paternal Factors Environmental Hazards Alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and heroin Rh factor Rubella, Syphilis, Genital herpes, AIDS (immune deficiency syndrome) Mother·s diet, pollution fish intense fears, anxieties and other emotions Adolescence & more than 30·s woman Abnormalities in sperm, father·s age Radiation, toxic wastes, chemical pollutants

ISLAMIC PERCEPTIVE 

"Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than Allah.µ
[Al-Qur·an 5:3] 

"Oh you who believe! Verily, without a shadow of a doubt, wine, gambling, idol worshipping, instruments used for divining, for telling the future, are all impurities and pollutants from the activities of Shaytaan." "and he wishes to prevent you and stop you and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and he wants to prevent you from performing salah."
[Al- Qur·an 5:90-91]

PRENATAL CARE
Health Care Dos and Don·ts

Food Dos and Don·ts Prenatal care Lifestyle Dos and Don·ts

Environmental Dos and Don·ts

CULTURAL BELIEFS ABOUT PREGNANCY 

Expectant mothers behave during pregnancy may depend in part on the prevalence of traditional home-care remedies and folk beliefs, the importance of indigenous healers, and the influence of health-care professions in their culture. Identify beliefs, values, and behaviors related to childbearing. Affect women·s attitudes about the care needed during pregnancy (e.g. Religious, language)  

NORMAL PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT 

It is important to remember that, although things can do go wrong during pregnancy, most of the time pregnancy and prenatal development go well. Avoiding teratogens helps ensure a positive outcome. 

BIRTH

The birth process

Birth

Assessing the newborn

Low birth weight and preterm infants

THE BIRTH PROCESS
Stages of birth

The birth process

Childbirth setting and attendants Methods of childbirth

The transition from fetus to newborn

STAGES OF BIRTH
First stage (12-24 hours) Contractions dilate the cervix to an opening of about 4 inches so that the baby can move from the uterus to the birth canal The baby·s head start to move through the cervix and the birth canal The placenta, umbilical cord and other membranes are detached and expelled

Second stage ( 1 ½ hours)

After birth stage (last only minutes)

METHODS OF CHILDBIRTH
Three basic kinds of drugs: analgesia, anesthesia, oxytocics

Medications

Natural childbirth Natural and Prepared childbirth Prepared childbirth

Cesarean delivery

Childbirth: delivery and birth.flv

THE TRANSITION FROM FETUS TO NEWBORN
Pregnancy
The placenta and umbilical cord

Brain damage
Oxygen Anoxia

Fetus
Adrenaline, noradrenalin and hormones

Well prepared and adapted the fetus

At Birth

Vernix caseosa

Skin

ASSESSING THE NEWBORN
Scales
Apgar Scale

Definition
A widely method to assessment the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth.

Role
Evaluates infants· heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, and reflex irritability.

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale(NBAS)

A test given several days after Assess newborns· neurological birth. development, reflexes, and reactions to people

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale(NNNS)

Described as an ´offspringµ of . the NBAS. Provides a more comprehensive analysis of newborn·s behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacities.

LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PRETERM INFANTS

Three related conditions post threats to newborn Low birth weight and preterm infants The incidence and causes of low birth weights

LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PRETERM INFANTS

Low birth weight Three related conditions post threats to newborn

Less than 2.3kg at birth

Being preterm (early delivery)

35 or fewer weeks at birth

Being small during the pregnancy

Birth weight is below normal when duration of pregnancy is considered

LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PRETERM
INFANTS
The incidence and causes of low birth weights
Incidences and causes of low Mother·s poor health and nutrition (Developing countries) birth weight
Cigarette smoking (Developed countries) Survival rates for infants, Brain injuries, Lung and liver diseases (at birth) Learning disabilities, Attention deficit, Breathing problem Stabilized the preterm infants, heartbeat, temperature, and breathing Longer period of sleep, gain more weight, decreasing crying«.

Consequences of low birth weights

Kangaroo care and massage therapy

THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD
The period after childbirth when the mother adjusts, both physically and psychologically, to the process of childbirth. Physical adjustment

This period lasts for about six weeks or until the body has completed its adjustment and returned to a near preBonding pregnant state.

Emotional and psychological development

PHYSICAL ADJUSTMENT
A woman·s body makes numerous physical adjustments in the first days and weeks after childbirth.

Physical changes after the delivery

Involution is the process by which the uterus returns to its pre-pregnant size, 5 and 6 weeks after birth

Returned to normal life before pregnancy

EMOTIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT
´Baby Bluesµ and Postpartum Depression Emotional and psychological development A father·s adjustment
Women begin to feel depressed, anxious, and upset about two and three days after childbirth

Relationship with the wife and baby

BONDING 

A physical bond between parents and the newborn in the period shortly after birth. An emotional attachment between the parents and newborn. The weakness' of the maternal infant bonding.  

Bonding: bonding.flv

ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE
) :[ ] (31:14) . ´And We enjoined on man concerning his parents- his mother bore him in weakness upon weakness, and his weaning was in two years.µ ( 2:233) . ´Mothers shall breastfeed their children for two whole years, for such as desire to complete the term µ. 


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