Donna Kris B.



SPUTNIK .005 MHz ´ 40. . 1957 LEO frequencies ´ 20.I ´ ´ ´ ´ The first artificial satellite October 4.002 MHz.

Eisenhower .SCORE ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ First voice communication established via satellite (US) 1958 LEO 35 days in orbit Christmas greeting to the world from U. President Dwight D.S.

ECHO I ´ First passive communication satellite launched into space 1960 ´ .

TELSTAR I First nongovernment active communication satellite launched ´ 1962 ´ MEO ´ .

INTELSAT I 1964: International Telecomm. Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) created. 1965: First communications satellite launched into geostationary orbit for commercial use Early Bird .

SATELLITE COMMUNICATION ´ Satellite is a physical object that orbits a celestial body. Communication satellite containing electronics equipment acts as a repeater or relay station between two earth station. ´ ´ . Transponder is the basic component of a communication satellite.

. Consumers uses satellite for TV reception. The main power supplies of a satellite are Solar Panels. The two angles used to point a ground station antennas are azimuth and elevation angles . During eclipse. the satellite is powered by Batteries. ´ The main used of satellite is for communications.SATELLITE COMMUNICATION ´ Satellites are located by earth coordinates expressed in terms of latitude and longitude.

gravitational force F2 .WHY DO SATELLITES STAY MOVING AND IN ORBIT? F2 F1 ´ F1 .the center of gravity of the earth Period .centripetal force ´ Geocenter .the time of one orbit .

800 to 17.SATELLITE ORBIT ´ Satellite orbits the earth from the height of 100 to 22. .500 mi/hr.300 mi and travel at speeds of 6.

SYNCOM1 in February (comms.GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE A satellite that orbits directly over the equator 22. .300 mi from earth. 1963: SYNCOM2 in February 1963 SYNCOM3 in August 1964 At the Geostationary orbit the satellite covers 42.2% of the earth·s surface. failed).

SATELLITE ORBIT Perigee Apogee Circular orbit Elli tical orbit .

LEO GEO MEO: 8.500 km Low Earth Orbit.ORBITS ´ LEO: 500 to 1.863 km Geostationary Earth Orbit ´ .000 km Medium Earth Orbit ´ EO GEO: 35.000 km .18.

Attenuation due to rain High Equipment cost (Ghz) C Ku Ka 4 11 20 6 14 30 .FREQUENCY BANDS ‡ Three common bands: Band Up-Link (Ghz) Down-link ISSUES Interference with ground links.


HOW DOES A SATELLITE WORK? ´ One Earth Station sends a transmission to the satellite. The satellite Transponder converts the signal and sends it down to the second earth station. ´ . This is called a Downlink. This is called a Uplink.

END OF LIFE option of de-orbiting the satellite leaving the satellite in its current orbit moving the satellite to a graveyard orbit. .

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