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Under the Guidance of

Dr. Dilip D. Sarode

Institute of Chemical Technology

Mumbai, Maharashtra 400019
4-Apr-19 Int. Conf. SWMD-18 1
The direct disposal of untreated wastewater into the nearby water bodies and
improper wastewater treatment facilities leads in spreading in water borne
diseases. Most of the Municipal councils and gram panchayat do not treat the
waste water due to cost involved in doing so.
Hence economical and eco-friendly method of treating the waste water is the need
for sustainable development. This will not only reduce the ultimate burden on the
overall nation’s medical expenditures, but also conserve water resources.
In India the discharge of untreated wastewater in the water courses both surface
and subsurface waters is the most important water polluting source. The Class I
and Class II cities about 38000 MLD of sewage generated with existing treatment
capacity only of 12000 MLD and the existing treatment facilities are not
efficiently utilize due to Operation and Maintenance issues. Around 39 % of
installed Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) are not conforming the discharge
standards of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).

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1. To demonstrate the model of lake rejuvenation with economical

wastewater treatment system.
2. To educate the rural community about good sanitation practices.
3. To avoid the lake contamination through community
4. To understand the possible reuses in rural areas.

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What is DEWATS
The Decentralized Wastewater Treatment System (DWATS) is the suitable
option towards the treatment of wastewater treatment at the user point or location
communally as well as individually.
This is non mechanized and natural wastewater treatment system which is not
only economical but also runs and treats the wastewater naturally.
Parameter Centralized system Decentralized system
1 Collecting system Large diameters, long distances Small diameters, short distances
2 Requirements space Large area in one place Small areas in many places
Operation and Less demanding, can be monitored
3 Full time technical staff requirements
maintenance remotely
4 Uniformity of water Many types of water More uniform water
Less control over the storm water, More control over the storm water,
5 Dilution grade
more dilution more concentrate
6 Risk Risk on a larger scale Risk distributed
Water is used and reused in the
7 Water transfer Increase the needs for water transfer
same area
8 Social control Social control is lost More social control
High costs, more complexity to Low cost, less complexity to
9 Ease of expansion
implementation implementation
10 Potential to reuse All water is concentrated in one point Water can be reused locally
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Why this Research
During June, July, August, September and October, the State received 24.7 %,
89.2 %, 79.5 %, 78.4 % and 41.4 % rainfall respectively as compared to the
normal. Total rainfall in the State during 2014 was 70.2 % of the normal. Out of
355 talukas excluding those in Mumbai City & Mumbai Suburban districts in the
State, 226 talukas received deficit rainfall, 112 talukas received normal and 17
talukas received excess rainfall. The classification of districts and talukas
according to broad category of rainfall received is given in Table 1 and month-
wise classification of talukas according to rainfall received is given in Table 2
Table 1 Table 2
Broad category of No. of Districts No. of Talukas Rainfall Number of Talukas
rainfall class Septemb
201 201 201 201 201 201 June July August October
(percentage to (percentag er
2 3 4 2 3 4 e to 201 201 20 20 20
2013 2014 2013 2014 2014
Excess (120 & normal) 3 3 14 13 14
1 18 0 30 186 17
more) 120 & 21
252 2 231 86 70 94 73 76 14
Normal (80 - 120) 22 15 10 189 153 112 above 9
Deficient (40 - 80) 10 00 23 133 16 213 100 - 120 43 1 65 66 61 26 68 48 28 16
80 - 100 28 6 42 61 65 62 66 61 24 14
Scanty (0 - 40) 00 00 0 3 0 13
60 - 80 25 10 13 61 66 77 84 49 26 27
40 - 60 7 50 4 43 70 72 47 46 29 51
20 - 40 0 126 0 37 22 23 17 49 20 75
0 - 20 0 160 0 1 1 1 0 26 9
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Why this Research
Table . Division-wise Water supplied by Tanker in State upto 09-July-2018
Total Number of Tankers
Sr. No. Name of District Division Towns Villages
(Government & Private)
1 Konkan Division 0 0 0
2 Nashik Division 157 86 121
3 Pune Division 26 114 22
4 Aurangabad Division 392 47 466
5 Amravati Division 141 0 129
6 Nagpur Division 0 0 0
Total 716 247 738
Source Water Supply and Sanitation Department, GoM

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Don’t take water for granted

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About study Area
State has 36 districts which are divided into 6 revenue divisions as Konkan, Pune,
Nashik, Aurangabad, Amravati and Nagpur for administrative purposes for effective
planning at the district level. Maharashtra has 34 Zilla Parishads, 351 Panchayat Samitis
and 27,873 Gram Panchayats for local self-governance in rural parts.
Recently the Latur district suffered a severe drought in 2016, the situation was so bad
that water was supplied by railway from Sangli / Miraj which are about 350 km away.
Latur is located on semi-arid drought prone zone with high variability in rainfall in
Maharashtra state.

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About study Area

Rainfall variation in Talukas of Latur District

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Moreover Maharashtra is one of the biggest producers of sugar, for which sugarcane crop
is taken on many agriculture fields. This crop requires lot of water as compare to other
To fulfill the demand of water for drinking and farming the ground water resources are
exploited and day by day the ground water level is going down.
The ground water is having more amounts of salts and the Reverse Osmosis (RO)
treatment is given to make it suitable for drinking at house holds and community level.
However the reject water from these RO unit which contains high amount of salts is used
for agriculture purpose, which further damages the fertility of soil in agriculture fields.

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The wastewater treatment to be adopted by village, towns, and cities depends
on capital cost, technical feasibility, operation and maintenance cost and
acceptance level of community as well as mind set of the governing bodies.
Hence the problem water of villages and towns should be seen from not only
from the point of view of water supply but also reuse of treated wastewater.
Effective systems in place will conserve the natural ground water, lakes, rivers
and avoid its contamination. This will also ensure the improvement in
cleanliness, healthy community leaving within rural community.

Authors are thankful to Department of Science and Technology for funding
the field project (DST/WTI/2K16/306) of Rejuvenation of Ausa lake. Authors
appreciate the support of management of Institute of Chemical Technology
(ICT), Mumbai for execution of the field project so as to benefit the society.
Author thanks Prof P K Ghosh of ICT for his constant inspiration.

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ਬਿਹਤਰ ਅਤੇ ਬਿਕਾਊ ਭਬ ਿੱਖ ਲਈ
ਪਾਣੀ ਿਚਾਓ

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