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3 INVERSE FUNCTION

1

INVERSE FUNCTION

then the inverse function is denoted by f 1

where f 1 is a function that maps y back to x.

x y

Note :

f 1 1

f-1

f (x2)

Suppose,

Df = Rf-1

Rf = Df-1

3

An inverse function of f exists only if the

function f is a ‘ one to one ‘ function.

i. Algebraic approach.

- if f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 ) ,

then x1 = x2

4

ii) Horizontal line test ( graphical approach)

graph of the function only once , then

the function is one – to- one.

a) b)

The

The horizontal

horizontal line

line

intersects

intersects

one-to-one the graph Not

at one one-to-one

point.

the graph at two points. 5

ii) Horizontal line test ( graphical approach)

graph of the function only once , then

the function is one – to- one.

a) b)

The

The horizontal

horizontal line

line

intersects

intersects

one-to-one the graph Not

at one one-to-one

point.

the graph at two points. 6

Method Of Finding The Inverse Function

2) By substitution

Note :

i) (f-1)-1 = f

ii) f-1(f(x)) = x and f(f-1(x)) = x

iii) (fg)-1 = g-1 f-1

7

Example 1 :

g : x (x 1) 2 2 , x R

If the domain of g is x R , x 0 ,

find g -1 and sketch the graph of g

and g-1. State the domain and range of g-1.

8

By Horizontal Line Test ,

y

y = ( x + 1)2 - 2

y = k

x

Min point Graph y = k intersects

y = (x+1)2 - 2 at two points

(-1, -2)

It is seen that g(x) is not one – to – one.

Hence, g has no inverse 9

To find g-1 ,

Let y = ( x + 1)2 - 2

y + 2 = ( x + 1)2

x + 1 = y2

( taking the + sign

x = y2 - 1 because x 0 )

That is g-1 ( y ) = y 2 1

Let y = x

Hence,

g1(x) x 2 1 10

y

y = ( x + 1)2 – 2 , x 0

y

x

Min point

(-1, -2)

11

If the domain of g is x R , x 0 ,

then g is one – to one - and hence

g -1 exists .

y

y=k

g

g-1

-1 x

-1

Dg = [0,) , Rg =[-1, )

D [-1, ) , R [0, ) 12

g1 g1

Example 2 :

4

Given f(x) = x 3 . Find f-1(x)

Solution :

f[f 1(x)] x

4

x

f 1(x) 3

xf 1(x) 3x 4

1 4 3x

f (x )

x 13

Example 3 :

Find the inverse for each of the following

function :

a) f(x) 2x 1, xεR

3

b) f (x) 2x 1, xεR

3 2

c) f (x) x , xεR

3

x 1

d) f (x) , x 2

x2

14

Solution :

a) f(x) 2x 1, xεR

f[f 1(x)] x

2f 1(x) 1 x

1 x 1

f (x )

2

3

b) f (x) 2x 1, xεR

2(f 1(x))3 1 x

1 x 1

f (x ) 3

2 15

3 2

c) f (x) x , xεR

3

1

f[f (x)] x

Let f 1(x) y

f(y ) x

3 2

y x

3

2

y x

3

3

1 2

f (x) 3 x

3 16

Example 4 :

Given that f (x) = 3x + 5. Find

(a) (f –1 )2

(b) (f 2)-1

17

Solution :

(a) (f-1) 2

y 5 x 5

f 1

x=

3 3

x 5 x 5

f -1(x)= 5

3 3

3

x 20

9 18

(b) (f 2) -1

= f(3x + 5)

x = w 20

= 3(3x + 5) +5

9

= 9x + 20

x 20

f

2 1

x

9

•Note that : f f

1 2 2 1

19

Example 5 :

The functions f and g are defined by

f : x 2x + 3 and g : x x – 1. Find

a) f -1 and g -1

1 1

b) g f and f g

c) f g

1

1 1

d) g f

20

Solution :

a) f : x 2x + 3 g : x x – 1.

x = y 3 x = w + 1

2

that is that is

y 3

f y

1 g-1(w) = w + 1

2

or x 3 or

f x

1

2 g-1(x) = x + 1

21

1 1

b) g f f g

g f x

1

gf x

1

f g

1

x f

g 1

x

x 3

g f x 1

2 2 x 1 3

x3

1 2x 5

2

x5

2

22

c) f g 1

f x 1 y 1

x

2

2 x 1 3

x 1

f g x

1

2x 1 2

23

1 1

d) g f

x 3

g 1

f 1

x g

1

2

x3

1

2

x 1

2

g f 1

24

Example 6

x p

Given the function f (x) = ,(x3),

x 3

where p is a constant. Find

a) The value of p if f ( 5 ) = 11

2

b) f -1

undefined.

25

Solution :

a) 5 p 1

f (5)

53 2 5 p 1

53 2

5+p = 3

p = -2

26

(b) From (a),

f(x)= y = x 2

x3

yx - 3y = x - 2

x( y -1) = 3y – 2

3y 2

Hence x =

y 1

-1

3x 2

Therefore, f (x) =

x 1

27

(c) f -1 is undefined for x =1

(This means that there is no value

of x in the original domain which

had an image of 1.)

and therefore cannot be used.

28

THE GRAPH OF THE INVERSE

the function f(x) can be obtained by

reflecting the graph f(x) about the line x= y.

Note :

Df = Rf-1

Rf = Df-1

29

Example 7 :

Sketch the graph of f and f-1 on the same axes.

Then find the domain and range of f and f-1 if

given f(x) = 3x + 2, x R

30

Solution :

x 2 Rf = ( -, + ) = D -1

f (x )

1

f

3

f y=x

2

f-1

2

31

Example 8 :

inverse function and state the domain and

range of f-1. Sketch the graph of f and f-1

on the same axes.

a)f(x) = -x2 + 5, x 5

b) f (x) x 2

2

c) f (x) ,x 3

x 3

32

a) f(x) = -x2 + 5 , x 0

intersects

the graph at one point.

33

a) f(x) = -x2 + 5, x 5 Df = [ 0, + ) = Rf-1

y=x

5

f-1

5

f

34

b) h(x) = x 2 , x 2 Dh = [ 2, + ) = Rh-1

1 2 Rh = [ 0, + ) = Dh-1

h ( x) x 2

h-1

y=x

2 h

35

2

c) f(x) = ,x>3

x 3 Df = ( 3, + ) = Rf-1

1 2 3x Rf = ( 0, + ) = Df-1

f (x )

x

f-1

y=x

f

3

36

Example 9 :

3

Find the inverse of f(x)= ( x + 4)(x – 1), x

2

and stating its domain. Then, on the same

axes, sketch the graph of f and its inverse.

37

Solution :

3

y = ( x + 4)(x – 1) , x By completing the

2

square

= x2 + 3x – 4

3 2 25

(x )

2 4

2

3 25 1 3

f (x ) x

25

x y 2 4

2 4

3 25

x y Taking positive

2 4 3

3 25 sign because x-

x y 2

2 4 38

3 25

f (x ) x

1

2 4

25

D 1 ,

f

4

f-1 y=x

25 3

4 2

3

2

25

4 39

Example 10 :

Given that f ( x ) = ( x – 9 )2 , x R , x 9.

i) Find the inverse of function f .

ii) Sketch the graph of f and f -1 on

the same plane.

iii) State the domain and range of f-1.

40

a) To find f -1

( f -1(x) - 9 ) 2 = x

f -1(x) - 9 = x

( taking the + sign )

f -1(x) = x +9

Hence, f - 1 : x x 9

41

b) Sketch the graphs

f

y y=k

f-1

x

9

c) Domain of f-1 : [ 0 , )

: [9,)

42

Range of f-1

Exercise :

1

Given that f (x) = 1 – x and g (x) = ,x -2.

Find (f g)1(x) x2

43

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