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Interpersonal Function

language is simultaneously used as


representation, exchange and
organization of experience ( Halliday
1994:68; Wilson & Sperber 1993:1-3).
As social beings, human kinds can not
live isolated; they need to interact with
others in order to fulfill their needs.
The use of language to interact is said
to perform interpersonal function.
SPEECH FUNCTIONS

COMMODITY
ROLES INFORMATION GOODS &
SERVICES
GIVING STATEMENT OFFER

DEMANDING QUESTION COMMAND


(a) [ giving/information]= statement
(b) [demanding/information= question
(c) [ give/goods & services] = offer
(d) [ demand/goods & services = command
the four speech function are semantic in nature. They
find their realization in Mood which is an aspect of
interpersonal meaning at the level of lexicogrammar
(Halliday 1993). In their congruent representation the
speech functions of statement, question and
command are realized by declarative, interrogative
and imperative. However, the speech function of offer
does not have an unmarked representation of Mood;
rather it is potentially coded by any one of the four
speech function.
Realizations of Speech Functions in Mood

• SPEECH FUNCTIONS

STATEMENT OFFER

QUESTION COMMAND MOODS

DECLARATIVE O

INTERROGATIVE IMPERATIVE
in english a statement may be either positive or
negative such as He came to the office yesterday
and he did not come to the office yesterday.
These are coded by positive and negative
declarative mood respectively. A question may
be either information question ( wh-question) or
yes/no question such as where did you go last
week? respectively. Like a statement, an
imperative may be positive or negative as in
Open the door! Or please don’t smoke here!. An
offer maybe coded by statement such as let me
take this book for you
UNMARKED REALIZATIONS OF SPEECH
FUNCTIONS
1. Benny bought a book yesterday (S, D)
2. Did Benny buy a book yesterday? (Q, I)
3. Buy a book! (C, Im)
4. No unmarked realization of Offer. It can be realized by either one of the Moods
a. Let me buy a book for you (O, Im)
b. I will buy a book for you (O, D)
c. Do you mind me/my buying you a book? (O, I)

5. Dalam bahasa Indonesia Modus dikodekan oleh unsur tata bahasa (ada), fonologi
(lisan), dan grafologi (tulisan)
a. Benni membeli buku.
b. Adakah Benni membeli buku?
c. Membeli buku Benni?
d. Benni membeli buku?
e. Beli buku itu!
MOOD AND RESIDUE
1. Subject MOOD
2. Finite
3. Predicator
4. Complement RESIDUE
5. Adjunct

In English Mood is coded by Subject +Finite


1. Subject Λ Finite: Declarative
2. Finite Λ Subject: Interrogative
3. (Subject) Λ Finite: Imperative
Finite and Predicator
write :do + write
open :do + open
can open :can + open
opened :did + open
opens :does + open
will open :will + open
have opened :have + opened
will have been opening :will + have been opening
FINITE PREDICATOR
SUBJECT AND FINITE CODING MOOD
A: Jane attended the meeting yesterday.
B: Did she?
A: Yes, she did.
B: No, she did not.
A: She did.
B: She did not.
A: She did for sure.
B: She did not for God’s sake.
She and did are reiterated to indicate Mood
Analysis
Jane attended the meeting yesterday
did attend
Subject Complement Adjunct
Finite Predicator

MOOD R E S I D U E
Notion
Complement: an element of the clause which is
potential to be promoted to be the Subject
Adjunct: an element of the clause which is not
potential to be promoted to be the Subject.

Suzanne bought a new car last week


FINIT dan MODUS dalam BAHASA
INDONESIA
Pemakaian terbatas
datang : ada + datang
menulis: ada + menulis
pergi : ada + pergi
Benni pergi ke pesta itu
Benni ada pergi ke pesta itu. (Subject Λ ada)
Ada (kah) Benni pergi ke pesta itu? (ada Λ Subject)
Pergi ke pesta itu!
Experiential and Interpersonal Function
Analysis
Jane attended the meeting yesterday
Actor Process: Goal Circumstance: Location:
Material Temporal

did attend
Subject Complement Adjunct
Finite Predicator

MOOD R E S I D U E
Analisis Makna Antarpersona dalam
Bahasa Indonesia
• Johan memahami penjelasan itu dengan baik

Pengindra Proses: Mental Fenomenon Sirkumstan: Cara

Subjek Predikator Komplemen Keterangan