You are on page 1of 14

CONTRACEPTION AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

GROUP MEMBERS
 ENAHOLO OFURE 15/MHS01/045
 ETU PRINCE 15/MHS01/049
 ETIAKA HILARY 15/MHS01/050
 EZEBRI OLOYE 15/MHS01/053
 EZEKIEL ROBSON 15/MHS01/054
 FAGBEMI GLORY 15/MHS01/055
 FALANA OLUWAKAYINSOLA 15/MHS01/056
 FRED-BOUFINI AMAEBI 15/MHS01/059
 HARRISON DEBORAH 15/MHS01/059
 HON FAITH 15/MHS01/062
 IDONIBOYEOB DAVID 15/MHS01/063
 IGBAFE TRACY 15/MHS01/064
 OLUMUYIWA YINKA-BALOGUN 16/MHS01/264
 CHIGAWEM ABUH 15/MHS06/001
 SALAMATU ADAMU 15/MHS06/004
 IDAYAT MOMODU 15/MHS06/037
 GOODNESS OSEMWEKHA 15/MHS06/054
 KAFILAH BAKARE 16/MHS01/253
 ELIZABETH HAASTRUP 16/MHS01/254
 OLUWAKEMISOLA IBITOLU 16/MHS01/255
 IKUABE MARY-ANN 16/MHS01/256
 MAXWELL TOLUWANI 16/MHS01/257
 MOHAMMED ASMAU 16/MHS01/258
 NAIYEJU DEBORAH 16/MHS01/259
 OLAWALE OLUBODUN 16/MHS01/261
 SALAWUDEEN ZAINAB 16/MHS01/263
 ANUGWO CHUKWUDI 16/MHS01/267
 ANUGWO CHUKWUEBUKA 16/MHS01/268
CONTRACEPTION

 Contraception, also known as birth control


and fertility control, is a method or device
used to prevent pregnancy.

 Birth control has been used since ancient


times, but effective and safe methods of birth
control only became available in the 20th
century.
 The most effective methods of birth control are
sterilization by means of vasectomy in males and
tubal ligation in females, intrauterine devices
(IUDs), and implantable birth control. This is
followed by a number of hormone-based methods
including oral pills, patches, vaginal rings and
injections.
 Less effective methods include physical barriers
such as condoms, diaphragms and birth control
sponges and fertility awareness methods .
 The least effective methods are spermicides and
withdrawal by the male without ejaculation
 . Sterilization, while highly effective, is not
usually reversible; all other methods are
reversible, most immediately upon stopping
them Safe Sex practices, such as with the use
of male or female condoms, can also help
prevent sexually transmitted infections.
 Other methods of birth control do not
protect against sexually transmitted diseases.
CONTRACEPTION METHODS

 Rhythm method
 Coitus interruptus
 Oral contraceptives
 Intrauterine contraceptives device (IUCD)
 Sterilization method
 Mechanical barriers
RHYTHM METHOD

 Rhythm Method of Contraception involves


the abstinence from sex during ovulation. For
pregnancy to occur, the sperm cell must
travel through the cervical canal where a
sperm can fuse with the egg or ovum. If
sperms are prevented from meeting with an
ovum, then pregnancy becomes impossible
MECHANISM OF ACTION
 One of the commonly practiced methods of contraception is to
avoid intercourse near the time of ovulation. The difficulty with this
method of contraception is predicting the exact time of ovulation.
Yet the interval from ovulation until the next succeeding onset of
menstruation is almost always between 13 and 15 days. Therefore, if
the menstrual cycle is regular, with an exact periodicity of 28 days,
ovulation usualy occurs within 1 day of the 14th day of the cycle. If,
in contrast, the periodicity of the cycle is 40 days, ovulation usually
occurs within 1 day of the 26th day of the cycle.
 Finally, if the periodicity of the cycle is 21 days, ovulation usually
occurs within 1 day of the seventh day of the cycle. Therefore, it is
usually stated that avoidance of intercourse for 4 days before the
calculated day of ovulation and 3 days afterward prevents
conception. But such a method of contraception can be used only
when the periodicity of the menstrual cycle is regular. The failure
rate of this method of contraception, resulting in an unintentional
pregnancy, may be as high as 20 to 25 percent per year.
COITUS INTERRUPTUS

 This method is also known as withdrawal


method. This method is unlike any other
methods in that it is male-controlled.
 It involves withdrawal of the penis from the
vagina before the man ejaculates.
 This method prevents pregnancy by
preventing contact between the sperm and
the egg