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Rea d i n g

Ac a d e m i c
Te x t
Academic Text
 stretch of language which perceived as a purposeful connected
 Spoken or written
 A product of communication or piece of language whose shape
is motivated by its semantic purposes and pragmatic roles.

Academic Text
 A product of communication or pieces of language used for
Structures of
Academic Texts
Minor grammatical units
 Words
 Phrases
 Clauses
 Sentences
Set of related sentences
Topic sentence
Major grammatical
Supporting units
 Paragraphs
Topic sentence
Contains the thesis or main idea of a

Supporting sentence
The sentence that develops or supports the
thesis or main idea of a paragraph
Patters of Paragraph Development
Deductive Pattern
A paragraph whose topic sentence is stated in the beginning.

Inductive Pattern
A paragraph whose topic sentence is stated in the end.

Deductive-Inductive Pattern
A Paragraph whose topic sentence is stated in the beginning and
restated in the end.
Inductive-Deductive Pattern
A paragraph whose topic sentence is stated
in the middle.

Hinted Pattern
A Paragraph whose topic sentence is not
stated, but implied.
Classification of Paragraphs

Independent Paragraph
A paragraph that stands on its own; it usually serves as a
compostion perse, having a thesis of its own.

Introductory paragraph
A Paragraph that introduces the thesis (main idea) of the
entire composition; it is also called first, opening, starting, or
beginning par.
Developmental Paragraph
A paragraph that develops/supports the thesis of the entire
composition; it is also called developing or supporting par.

Transitional Paragraph
A paragraph that connects two or more paragraphs; it is also
called connecting, linking, or joining paragraph.

Concluding paragraph
A paragraph that serves to end the entire composition; it is also
called closing, ending, finishing, or last paragraph.
Academic Texts as entire Compositions

 IBC format

 ABC format

 P-V-R
Language Used in Academic Texts
Jargon- language specific to the discipline used
Kind of Jargon Meanings Examples
Language of doctors; terms Osteoporosis, scoliosis,
Medicalese used in the field of medicine leukemia, meningococcemia,
dysmenorrhea, peptic ulcer,
antacid, insomnia, vasectomy,

Language of lawyers; terms Criminologists, penology,

Legalese used in the field of law habeas corpus, illegitimate, jus
soli, bona fide, complainant

Language of journalists; terms Yellow journalism, blue

Journalese used in the field of journalism/ penciling, lead, beat, headline,
newspapering banner, streamer, byline,
editorializing, libel, layout
artist, classified ads
Language of businessmen; terms used Expenditure, revenue, purchasing
Commercialese/ in the field of commerce and industry power, merchandising, ultimate
mercantilese consumer, bad order, ceiling price,
accrual, collateral, liabilities

Language of technocrats; terms used Halogen, kinetic energy, centrifugal

Technicalese in the field of science and technology force, aerodynamics, hydrostatics,
barometer, solar energy, acceleration,
altitude, electron

Language of diplomats; terms used in Attache, ambassador of goodwill,

Diplomatese the field of foreign service courtesy call, extradition, deportee,
diplomatic, corps, state visit,
consulate, immigration, press briefing

Language of teachers; terms used in Normal distribution curve, feeble-

Teacherese the field of education mindedness, special education, open
university, teaching strategy,
assessment, classroom performance
Language of others; terms used in Baby talk, breast-feeding, feeding
Motherese parenting bottles, baby sitter, weaning,
toddlers, disposable diapers, special
children, temper tantrums

Language of texters; terms used in R, low batt, txtmsg, sms, cp, http,
Telegraphese telegraphy/texting www, wifi, asl, sop, asap, emo, lipo,
demo, chemo, con-ass, concon, ob-

Language of computer specialists; Kilobyte, octal system, debugging,

Computerese terms used in information love bug, programming, flow chart,
technology website designer, cybercrime,
database, memory, chatting
Thesis Statements and forms of discourse

Thesis statement – controlling

idea in the form of a declarative sentence

Any stretch of language larger than a
sentence, whether spoken or written, and
having a logically consistent and unified
Forms of Discourse Meanings Examples

A form of discourse that serves to Research paper on the causes and

Exposition explain or inform; it appeals t the effects of global warming; an article
intellect on child labor and child abuse

A form of discourse that serves to Student’s description of his ideal

Description describe or state the qualities or teacher; writer’s decription of a locale
characteristics of something/ he has visited; descriptive article on a
someone; it appeals to the senses festive celebration of town’s patron
A form of discourse that serves to Narrative account of a student’s near-
Narration narrate or tell a story; it appeals to the death experience; fictive story about
emotions an encounter with a supernatural

A form of discourse that serves to Essay expounding on the retention or

Argumentation argue or to persuade cancellation/cessation of the Visiting
Forces Agreement; commercial-
advertisement endorsing a student’s
manufactured product
Summarizing and
Academic Texts
Summarizing -writing a condensed or
shorter version of the original material

Paraphrasing- writing a new version of

the original material
Points of Contrast Summary or Precis Paraphrase

Shorter than the original material Almost the same as the original
Length material

Similar to the original material; Similar to the original material;

Idea however, only the main ideas are moreover both the main and
included subordinate ideas are included

Different from the original material Different from the original material

1. Read the selected original material 1. Read the selected original material
Procedures carefully carefully in order to understand its
full and exact meaning.
2. Reread the selection. 2. Write the paraphrase in your own

3. Write the summary as a whole unit 3. Restate the ideas of the original
of composition. entirely.

4. Do not use too many words. 4. Do not add personal views or

reactions to the ideas tin the original

5. Follow the order of the original

6. Compare your summary with 5. Compare your paraphrase
the original selection. with the original selection.

7. After doing the comparison, 6. After doing the comparison,

revise your summary if there is revise your paraphrase if there
a need for additions and/or is a need for additions and/or
omissions. omissions.
8. Remember that a good 7. Remember that a good
summary is grammatically paraphrase is grammatically
correct. correct.
Outlining Academic Texts
Process of writing
 Pre-writing
 Writing
 Post-writing

Two systems of outlining.

 Alphanumeric (number-letter) system
 Decimal system
Makes use of symbols that look like decimal numbers
Points of Contrast Topic Outline Sentence Outline Paragraph outline

Entries Words, phrases, sentences Topic sentences


Number of Four to six Two to four Only one


Mechanics No periods at the Period mark the end Period mark the end
end of entries of entries of entries

Application Used for long or Used for short Used for short
short compositions compositions compositions

Parallelism Parallelism of words, Parallelism of Parallelism not

phrases, or clauses of coordinate sentences essential
coordinate heads
A Topic outline for English 216
(Introduction to Linguistics)
I. Language
A. Characteristics of Language
B. Studies of language
II. Phonology
C. Speech mechanism
D. Phonetics
1. Articulatory phonetics
2. Acoustic phonetics
C. Phonemics
1. Phonemes
a. Segmental Phonemes
(1)Vowel sounds (Vocoids)
(2) Consonant sounds (Contoids)
A Sentence outline: A Comparative Study of the
Analyzing and Reasoning Strategies of AB English
Scholars of Central Colleges of the Philippines
I. Language learning strategies differ from one learner to another.
A. Some language learners have the facility in learning a language because they employ both direct
and indirect learning strategies; others have difficulty because their language learning strategies
are limited.
B. This study aims to determine the kind and frequency of analyzing and reasoning strategies
employed by AB English scholars of CCP.
C. This study is significant in letting the students realize the importance of employing analyzing and
reasoning strategies in learning a language.
D. This study is limited to AB English scholars enrolled in the second semester of school year 2003-
Humanities What is Art?
Sample Academic Text
Business and Accountancy Joyce Renhold, the Best Answer to your Cleaning needs
Computer Science ICT Literacy among Faculty

Medical Professions On Phobias

Tourism and HRM What is Filipino Food?

Science and Technology Endangered Species

Education My Educational Philosophy

Law Chief Justice Hilario G. Davide, Jr.

Language and Literature English- A Tool for Word Unity and Global Understanding

Sports Manny Pacquiao: A Sportsman, Congressman, and Religious Man

General Academic A Valedictory Address; Jesus Christ is the Reason for Rejoicing
this Season