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GRUP 6 :
S. WAHYUDI YUSUF (311 16 013)
M. SYAHRUL RAMADHANI A. (311 16 014)
NURUL MUCHLISAH (311 16 016)
KRISTIANNO INNA (311 18 018)
MUH MIHRAM (311 16 022)
 Tunnels are underground passages used for
transportation. They could be used for carrying
freights and passengers, water, sewage, etc.

 It is understood that first tunnel was constructed by

Egyptians and Babylonians about 4000 years ago. It
was built to connect two buildings in Babylon. The
length, width, and height of this tunnel were 910 m,
360 cm, 450 cm respectively.
 Tunnels are more economical than open cuts beyond
certain depths
 Tunnels avoid disturbing or interfering with surface
life and traffic during construction
 Tunnels prove to be cheaper than bridges or open
cuts to carry public utility services like water, sewer
and gas
 In case of aerial warfare and bombing of cities, the
tunnels would grant better protection as compared to
Tunnel Classification based on its
1. Traffic Tunnel
Some use of Traffic Tunnel :

Rail Tunnel Highway Tunnel

Navigation Tunnel Mine Tunnel
2. Transport Tannel
 Hidro Power Tannel

 Water Suply Tannel

 Sewerage Water
 Tunnel for general

Tunnel Construction
 open excavation method
1. The first method is performed with the simplest method to create a
shallow tunnel where the area above the location to be tunneled
should be excavated and the tunnel built with a roof
2. The second way is to build the wall upright tunnel first, then the top cover
layer is done after that new ground under it excavated and the last
foundation in the cast for subsequent trimming.
 Tunnel Boring Machine
Using a tunnel boring machine allows tunnels to be created without having to
dig an area above the location to be tunneled. The drill machine punctures the
ground along the tunnel location. Drilling machines can be operated
automatically during the tunnel construction process, and can penetrate almost
all types of rocks