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Chapter 2—Group Formation

and Development
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Groups and Maslow
 Which hierarchical needs can be
fulfilled by group participation?
 Do some groups fulfill more than one
 What might happen if a group fails to
fulfill a member’s needs?
Schultz’s Theory of
Interpersonal Behavior
 People need people!
 Fundamental Interpersonal
Relationship Orientation (FIRO)
needs: Inclusion, Control, Affection
 Inclusion: undersocial/oversocial
 Control: Democratic, abdicrat,
 Affection: underpersonal/
Schultz’s Theory of
Interpersonal Behavior
 What happens to members who
are less social or overly social?
 What can you do to encourage
group members to change their
 What if a group member will not
change his/her behavior?
How Groups Develop

Tuckman’s stages
Forming – The group comes
Storming – Why is it a good thing
to address conflict early?
Norming – Group finds their “team”
Performing – Group focuses their
Fisher’s Phases

Orientation – getting to know each other

Conflict – Express opinions.
Emergence – Search for solutions and
decisions replaces argumentation.
Reinforcement – Agreement
Wheelan’s Model
In each of these models,
conflict emerges as the
Dependency andphase
second inclusion – Finding
of group
your “role” in
formation. the group.
Counterdependency and fight – Come
here, go away!
Trust and structure – Overcome
Work – Begin to work together.
Termination – Project completes.
Group Norms
What is a “norm”?

Explicit Norms: Put in Writing—“The

syllabus states that three tardies equals
one absence.”
Implicit Norms: Behaviors and actions
that are implied—“When I come to class
late, I should quietly go to my seat.”
Four Categories of Norms
 Interaction – How group members communicate with
each other will help them determine what types of
communication behavior are appropriate in a group.

 Procedural – Dictates how the group will operate

based on rules and procedures.

 Status – Identifies the levels of influence among group

members and how status is determined.

 Achievement – Determines the quality and quantity of

work expected from the group members. You discuss
how much time and energy must be devoted to
Conformity and Deviation
 Is it possible to conform to group norms,
even if you are not in agreement with them?
 Is it possible deviate from the group norm in
a constructive manner?
 How can group members change goals in a
healthy way?
 When is it time to change the norms of a