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5 CRITERIA THAT PROFESSIONALS SHOULD APPLY

CLASSIFICATIONS SYSTEMS

INTERMITTENT EXTENSIVE
Supports are
“As-needed basis”
characterized by regular
These maybe:
1. Episodic – person LIMITED involvement PERVASIVE
does not always need
Supports are Supports are not time
assistance
characterized by limited
2. Short-term– occurs Supports must be
consistency wherein the Examples: Long-term job
during lifespan constant and of high
time required maybe and home-living support
transitions intensity
limited, but the need is not will be necessary
This supports may be of intermittent Involves more staff and
high or low intensity Examples: time limited are more intrusive than
employment training and extensive or time limited
supports during transition supports
from school to adulthood
PHYSICAL
LEARNING and
DEVELOPMENT
May be associated by MEMORY
DIMINISHED
Environmental, not genetic,
INTELLECTUAL ABILITY
factors (significantly below
average)

SPEECH and
d
LANGUAGE
Delayed speech and
language development SELF
REGULATION
Speech difficulties involves: The ability to
1. Articulation rehearse a task
2. Voice whereas people
3. Stuttering with intellectual
disability do not
appear to be able
to apply this skill
d
d
ACADEMIC
ACHIEVMENT ADAPTIVE SKILLS
Significant delays in the areas of: Difficulty in both learning and
1. Literacy applying skills for a number of
2. Mathematics Reasons:
People with intellectual disability could d 1. Distractibility
Classified as Low-Moderate and 2. Inattentiveness
Moderate-Severe 3. Impulsive behaviors
CAUSES OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

POVERTY-RELATED
04 DEPRIVATION

PROBLEMS DURING and


AFTER BIRTH 03

02
PROBLEMS DURING
PREGNANCY

GENETIC CONDITIONS 01
GENETIC DISORDER
Caused by a person having too
many or too few chromosomes
or by a change in the structure CHROMOSOMAL
of the chromosome that disrupts
its function

Occurs when cells cannot produce


proteins or enzymes needed to
process certain substances that can
then become poisonous and damage SINGLE GENE
tissue in CNS
*PHENYLKETONURIA(PKU)

Occur when one or several genes


on different chromosomes in
combination with environmental MULTIFACTORIAL
factors results in abnormal
inheritance pattern
PROBLEMS DURING
PREGNANCY 01

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome


Refers to a group of physical and mental
birth defects resulting from women’s
drinking alcohol during pregnancy
03
Maternal Infections
Prematurity Infection in a mother during
02 Refers to infants delivered before pregnancy, sometimes having
37 weeks from the first day of last
menstrual period
the potential to injure
an unborn child
05

Human Immunodeficiency Anencephaly


04 Virus A condition in which the individual
When transmitted from the mother has a partial or even complete
to the unborn child, it can result in absence of cerebral tissue
significant intellectual deficits
Interventions and Treatments for Intellectual Disability

Early Childhood Education


• Head Start – a prevention program that attempts to identify and
instruct at-risk children before they can enter public school
• Developmental Milestones – seeks to develop, remedy, or adapt
learner skills based on child’s variation from what is considered
normal
• Infant simulation programs – involves learning simple reflex
activities and equilibrium reactions
Elementary education
Academic skills
• Direct instructions – the direct teaching of letters, words, and
syntactic, phonetic and semantic analysis
• Functional reading program – uses materials that are a part of a
person’s normal routines in work, everyday living and leisure
activities

Self-help skills
• Includes eating, dressing, and maintaining personal hygiene
Social skills
• Emphasizes the importance of problem solving and decision-
making skills and using appropriate communication in a social
context

Communication skills
Communication systems
1. verbal language
2. augmentative communication
3. combination of verbal and augmentative communication
Assistive technology and communication aids
• a variety of communication approaches that aid people with
intellectual disabilities who have limited speech ability
Low-tech (language board with pictures)
High-tech (a tablet with voice outputs)

Motor skills
• Fundamental to the developmental process and a prerequisite
to successful learning in other learning areas (i.e. self-help and
social skills)
Gross motor development - involves general mobility. Interaction of
the body with the environment
Fine motor development – includes reaching, grasping, and
manipulating of objects. Also involves eye-hand coordination
Adolescent Education and Transition to Adulthood

Personal independence
• Refers to the development and application of skills that lead to
greater self-sufficiency

Participation in the community


• Includes access of people with intellectual disabilities to programs,
facilities and services offered for people without intellectual
disabilities.

Employment preparation
Supported employment – work in an inclusive setting for