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Put the following into columns and in the right order to describe
inhalation (inspiration) and exhalation (expiration).
• Diaphragm contracts to • External intercostal muscles
become flatter and pushes relax and ribs fall
digestive organs down. • Pressure in chest cavity
• Diaphragm relaxes and is drops below atmospheric
pushed up by displaced pressure
organs underneath • Air moves into the lungs
• External intercostal muscles • Volume of chest cavity
contract to raise the ribs decreases
• Volume of chest cavity • Pressure in lungs increases
increases and rises above atmospheric
• Air moves out of the lungs pressure
Inhalation Exhalation
1. External intercostal 1. External intercostal
muscles contract to raise muscles relax and ribs fall
the ribs 2. Diaphragm relaxes and is
2. Diaphragm contracts to pushed up by displaced
become flatter and pushes organs underneath
digestive organs down. 3. Volume of chest cavity
3. Volume of chest cavity decreases
increases 4. Pressure in lungs increases
4. Pressure in chest cavity and rises above
drops below atmospheric atmospheric pressure
pressure 5. Air moves out of the lungs
5. Air moves into the lungs

Interactive Iron Lung

Calculate your breathing rate
• Count how many times • How would this rate
you breath in and out in change if you were
one minute exercising?
• Why?
Lung volume
Key words
• Tidal volume • The volume of air
moved in and out of the
lungs at rest (aprox
• The largest volume that
• Vital capacity
can be moved in and
out of the lung (aprox 5
Some more key words
• Residual volume • Volume of air that always
remains in the lungs
• Air in the lungs that can
not be used in gas
• Dead space
exchange (trachea)
• The volume of air that
• Inspiratory reserve can be inhaled over the
volume normal tidal volume
• The volume of air that
• Expiratory reserve can be expired over the
volume normal tidal volume
The spirometer and lung volume
Following the same pattern as
Spirometer traces below, calculate the oxygen
uptake for (b) Answer = 1.9dm3min-1

Calculating the oxygen uptake: (diagram a - at rest)

Y-axis shows the reduction in chamber total volume by 0.3dm 3 between points A&B.
The time taken for this reduction is 100-45s
So in 55s 0.3dm3 of oxygen is used up. This gives...
= 0.3 dm3s-1 = 0.3 x 60 dm3min-1 = 0.33dm3min-1
55 55
1. Suggest how a spirometer trace for a trained
athlete would differ from a spirometer trace
from an untrained individual?
2. Suggest why traces like those on the previous
slide are not started immediately as the
subject begins to exercise.
3. Answer the rest of question 4 from Jan 2002
paper (2802)
Plenary activity:
Answer question 1 and 2 from Jan 2003 paper

Complete exam question 6 from Jan 2006
paper (2802)
Plenary answers