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U

NI
T-
A C T I O N S
2
C O N T R O L
Ba BASIC
sic AN D
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R O L L E R S
ntr C O N T
ol
Ac
tio
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ntr By: Yatendra Kumar
oll
er
U Introductio
NI
n
 A controller compares the actual value of
T-
output with the reference input,
2 determines the deviation, and produces a
Ba
control signal that will reduce the
sic
deviation to zero or to a small value.
co
nt
rol  The manner in which the controller
Ac produces the control signal is called the
tio control action.
ns
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Co
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U Classifications of Controllers
NI
T-
2
Ba Dis-continuous Continuous
sic
coON-OFF Controllers
nt Composite Action
rol Controllers
Two Position
Ac controller
tio Single Action P
ns Multi Position Controllers
an controller I
d Floating ModeP I D PD
Co controller
nt
rol PID
ler
U Related Terms and definitions
NI
T- Continuous Controller : Controller that
2 responds to continuous input variables are
Ba called continuous controller.
sic
co
Discrete Controller : Controller that
nt
rol responds to discrete signal are called
Ac discrete controllers.
tio
ns Process Equation: A process equation
an describes the mathematical relationship
d among the input and output variables.
Co
nt
rol
ler
U Related Terms and definitions
NI
Process Load: The term process load refers
T- to a set of parameters that influences or
2 bring changes in the process excluding the
Ba controlled variable.
sic Nominal Load: All the parameters have their
co normal or nominal value
nt
rol Transient : A temporary or sudden change
Ac or the variation of one of the variable is
tio called transient.
ns Process Lag : A process control loop responds to
an ensure that some finite time later, the variable
d returns to the set point value. Part of this time is
Co consumed by the process itself and that time is
nt called process lag.
rol
ler
U Related Terms and definations
NI
T- Control Lag : Control lag refers to the time for the
2 process control loop to make necessary adjustment
Ba to the final control element.
sic
co Cycling : Oscillation of error about the zero value.
nt This means the dynamic variable cycling above
rol and below the set point. For cycling we are
Ac interested in amplitude and period of oscillation.
tio
ns
Dead Time : Another time variable associated with
an
process control is a function of both process
d
Co control system and the process. This is the elapsed
nt time between the instant of deviation (error)
rol occurs and when the corrective action first occurs.
ler
U Discontinuous Controller Modes:
NI
T- In these controller modes the controller
2 output will be discontinuous with respect to
Ba controlled variable error.
sic
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U ON-OFF CONTROLLERS
NITwo Position Controller
T-
2 A  two  position  controller  is  a
Ba  device  that  has  two operating
sic  conditions:
co
 Completely  ON   or
nt
rol  Completely OFF.
Ac
tio
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an
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Co
nt
rol
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U ON-OFF CONTROLLERS
NI  Fig.1 shows the input
2 Position to output,
Controller: characteristic
Operation
T- waveform for a two position controller that
switches from its "OFF" state to its "ON" state
2
when the measured variable increases above the
Ba
set point.
sic
   
co
 Conversely,  it  switches  from  its  "ON"  state  to
nt
 its "OFF"  state  when  the  measured variable
rol
decreases below the set-point.
Ac
tio  This device provides an output determined by
ns
whether the error signal is above or below the
an
set-point.
d
Co  The  magnitude  of the error signal is above or
nt below the set-point.  The magnitude of the error
rol signal past that point is of no concern to the
ler controller.
U ON-OFF CONTROLLERS
NI Two Position Controller: Operation
T-
2
Ba
sic
co
nt O
ON

rol U
T
Ac P
U
tio T
ns OFF

an
d
Co SET Measured Variable
nt POINT

rol Fig.1: Two position


ler controller
U ON-OFF CONTROLLERS
NI 2 Position Controller: Operation
T-
2
Ba
sic
co
nt
rol
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U ON-OFF
CONTROLLERS
NI2 Position Controller: Operation
T-
2 NEUTRAL ZONE or DEAD BAND
Ba Practically in designing of two position
sic controller, whenever the controller output
co has to change over from 0% to 100% or
nt vice-versa, there is a differential gap known
rol as Neutral zone around the zero error point
Ac where virtually no controller output results.
tio This dead band or
ns neutral zone is
an purposefully is
d designed above or
Co below a certain limit to
nt
avoid the excessive
rol
cycling
ler
U ON-OFF CONTROLLERS
NI 2 Position Controller: Operation
T-
2
Ba
sic
co
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Ac
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U ON-OFF CONTROLLERS
NI Example of 2 Position Controller
T-
2
Ba
sic
co
nt
rol
Ac
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an
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Co
nt
rol Figure:  Two Position  Control System
ler
U
NI
T-
2
Ba
sic
co
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NI
T-
2
Ba
sic
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NI
T-
2
Ba
sic
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U
NI
T-
2
Ba
sic
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U
NI
T-
2
Ba
sic
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U
NI
T-
2
Ba
sic
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U
NI
T-
2
Ba
sic
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U ON-OFF CONTROLLERS
NI Applications
T-
2 Generally the two-position control action
Ba mode is best adapted to
sic
co  Large-scale systems with relatively slow
nt process rates
rol Ex : Room heating systems, air-conditioning
systems.
Ac
tio  Systems in which large-scale changes are not
ns
common
an
d Ex : Liquid bath temperature control, level
Co control in
nt large-volume tanks.
rol
ler
U ON-OFF CONTROLLERS
NI Example of 2 Position Controller
T-  The controlled process is the volume of
2 water in the tank.
Ba
sic
co  The controlled variable is the leveling the
nt tank. It is measured by a level detector
rol that sends information to the controller.
Ac
tio
ns  The output of the controller is sent to
an the final control element, which is a
d solenoid valve, that controls the flow of
Co water into the tank.
nt
rol
ler
U ON-OFF CONTROLLERS
NI Example of 2 Position Controller
T-  As the water level decreases initially, a
2 point is reached where the measured
Ba variable drops below the set point. This
sic creates a positive error signal.   The
co controller opens the final control element
nt fully.   Water is subsequently injected into
rol the tank, and the water level rises.
Ac  As soon as the water  level  rises  above
tio  the  set-point,  a  negative  error  signal  is
ns  developed.   The  negative  error signal
an causes the controller to shut the final
d control element. This opening and closing
Co of the final control element results in a
nt cycling characteristic of the measured
rol
variable.
ler
U ON-OFF CONTROLLERS
NI Modes of Automatic Control
T-  The mode of control is the manner in which a
2 control system makes corrections relative to an
Ba error that exists between the desired value (set-
sic point) of a controlled variable and its actual
co value.
nt
 The mode of control used for a specific
rol
Ac application depends on the characteristics of the
tio process being controlled.
ns  For example, some processes can be operated
an over a wide band, while others must be
d
maintained very close to the set-point.
Co
nt  Also, some processes change relatively slowly,
rol while others change almost immediately.
ler
U ON-OFF Controller :Multi position
NI Controller
Multimode/ Multi-position Controller:
T-
• Multimode controller is a logical extension
2
of ON/OFF controller.
Ba
sic
co • It is used to provide several intermediate,
nt rather than two, namely 0% (OFF) and 100
rol % (ON)
Ac other several intermediate setting of the
tio controller output are provided.
ns
an • This discontinuous control is used in an
d attempt to reduce the cycling behavior and
Co overshoot and undershoot inherent in the
nt
On/Off controller.
rol
ler
• The most common example is a 3-position
U ON-OFF Controller :Multi position
NI Controller 3-position Controller:
T-
2 100 % e > e
As long as the error is between e1
2
Ba and e2 of the set point, the
sic P= controller stays at the nominal
50% -e1< e
co setting of 50 %; if error exceeds
<e2
nt the set point by e2 or more the
rol 0% e< output is increased by 100%. If it
Ac
-e1 is less than the set point by -e1 or
tio more, the controller output is
zero.
ns
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U ON-OFF Controller :Multi position
NI Controller
Floating Control Mode
T-
2  In a floating control, the specific output of
Ba the controller is not uniquely determined by
sic the error.
co 
If the error is zero the output does not
nt
change but remains (floats) at whatever
rol
Ac setting it was when the error went to zero.
tio  When the error moves off zero, the
ns controller output again begins to change
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U ON-OFF Controller :Multi position
NI Controller
Floating Control Mode
T-
2 Types of Floating mode
Ba controller
sic  Single Speed Floating Control Mode:
co In the single-speed floating mode, the
nt output of the control element changes at a
rol fixed rate when the error exceeds the
Ac neutral zone.
tio  Multi Speed Floating Control Mode:
ns In the multi-speed floating mode, not one
an but several possible speeds (rates) are
d
changed by controller output. Usually, the
Co
rate increases as the deviation exceeds
nt
rol
certain rate.
ler
U ON-OFF Controller :Multi position
NI Controller
Floating Control Mode
T-
2
in this control action, the specific controller
Ba
sic output is not uniquely determined by error
co unlike the previous mode. if error is zero, the
nt controller output does not change but
rol remains (floats) at whatever setting it was
Ac when error went to zero. whenever the error
tio occurs the controller output again begins to
ns change.
an
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U ON-OFF Controller :Multi position
NI Controller
Floating Control Mode
T-
2 1.Single Speed:
Ba In the single-speed floating mode, the
sic output of the control element changes at a
co fixed rate when the error exceeds the neutral
nt zone.
rol 2. Multi Speed:
Ac In the multi-speed floating mode, not one
tio but several possible speeds (rates) are
ns
changed by controller output. Usually, the
an
rate increases as the deviation exceeds
d
Co
certain rate.
nt
rol
ler
U Single Speed Floating Control Mode
NI
In this mode, controller output changes at a fix rate
T- whatever the error exceeds the neutral zone.
2
Ba
sic The analytical expression is
co = > Neutral Zone
nt Where
rol = Rate Constant [ % / sec]
Ac
tio
ns The specific output is obtained by integrating the
an above equation.
d P= t + P(0),
Co
where P(0) is initial setting of the controller when
nt error is zero.
rol
ler
U Single Speed Floating Control Mode
NI
The characteristic of single speed floating control mode
T- controller is shown in below fig.
2
Ba
sic
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U Single Speed Floating Control Mode
NI Consider the graph showing controller output with error,
T- that exceeds. The neutral zone, after certain instants of
time as shown in fig.
2
Ba
sic
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U Multiple Speed Floating Control Mode
NI
T-
2
Ba
sic
co
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Ac
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ns
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Co
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U Multiple Speed Floating Control Mode
NI
T-
2
Ba
sic
co
nt
rol
Ac
tio
ns
an
d The single speed or multiple speed floating action can
Co be employed with general flow control system or
nt pressure control system with small capacities and
rol having self-regulation to some extent with small dead
time or lag
ler
U Continuous Controller Modes
NI
T- • Unlike the discontinuous modes of
2 operation, in continuous modes,
Ba there is a relation existing between
sic
co
controller output and error.
nt • Whenever there is a deviation of the
rol controlled variable from set point.
Ac The controller responds in a smooth
tio
ns
fashion to achieve the control
an object.
d • Some of the continuous modes are
Co natural extension of discontinuous
nt
rol
modes itself.
ler
U Contiguous Controller Mode
NI Proportional Controller
T- Mode
 It is basically natural extension of two
2 position controller mode.
Ba
sic  In this mode, there is a smooth relation
co between controller output and error before
nt the output saturate to 0% [OFF state] or
rol 100% [ON state].
Ac
tio  Between these two saturation level, there
ns is a band of errors, where every values of
an error has a unique value of controller
d output. i.e. there is one to one
Co correspondence existing between
nt controller output and error.
rol
 This range of error to cover 0 to 100%
ler
controller output is known as proportional
U Multiple Speed Floating Control Mode
NI 
The analytical expression is written within the
T- proportional band which describe the operation of
2
Ba the proportion control action as :
sic
co P=K e+Pp 0 …………….. 1
nt Where Kp is proportional gain and
rol P0 is initial value of controller
output
Ac  The transfer function representation is obtained
tio by applying Laplace Transform to above equation
ns
an
d
P(s) = K . E(s)
p
Co here, initial value assumed to be zero
nt
rol Kp
E(s) P(s)
ler
U Contiguous Controller Mode
NI P Controller
Figure. 2.0
T- Mode
2
Ba
sic
co
nt
rol
Ac
tio  Fig.2.0 represents the characteristics of P- control
ns
an action. The proportional band (PB) is related to the
d gain of the P-controller KP and can be defined as
Co , thus by selection of KP, PB can be changed
nt
rol
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U Contiguous Controller Mode
NI The proportional band of a proportional
T- controller depends on the inverse of the gain.
2
Ba
sic
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U Contiguous Controller Mode
NI P Controller
T- Mode
Figure. 2.1

2
Ba
sic
co
nt
rol
Ac
tio
 In
Fig. 2.0 , assume a step change in deviation,
ns
an Let e = A [step change]
d P = KP. e ,
Co P = KP A
nt
rol
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U Contiguous Controller Mode
NI
Biggest question : why not
T-
Proportional controller?
2
Ba Offset or residual error :
sic
co
 one of the main disadvantage of the P
nt control action is that it produces a
rol permanent residual error in the
Ac operating point of the controlled
tio
ns variable, when a process load change
an results in error. This residual error is
d known is OFFSET.
Co  This error can be minimized by larger
nt
rol constant Kp which will also reduce the
ler proportion band
U Contiguous Controller Mode
NI
An offset error must occur if a proportional controller
T-
requires a new zero-error output following a load
2 change
Ba
sic
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U Contiguous Controller Mode
NI
T- Illustration of
2  OFFSET
consider first order process having process
Ba equation or transfer function
sic
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U Illustration of
NI   OFFSET
T- • If we assume a sudden change in the input
2 causing a sudden error.
Ba • The proportional controller adjust the final
sic control element proportionately affecting
co
the dynamics of the process to bring back
nt
rol the output to the set point value.
Ac • This is possible if and only if the steady
tio state error is zero.
ns
an
d • From the statement of steady state error
Co
nt
rol
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U Illustration of
NI   OFFSET
Let R(s) = [step change]
T-
2
Ba
sic
co
nt
rol
Ac • This steady state error is not zero but
tio inversely proportional to gain Kp.
ns • Thus this control action fails to make the
an error zero whenever the output changes due
d to change in input or load variable.
Co
• This is known as offset.
nt
rol
ler
U Illustration of
NI OFFSET
T-  • From previous Eqn.
2 Offset
Ba
sic
co
nt 
Both PB and Offset are inversely proportional to
rol
gain KP. To reduce the offset , KP should be
Ac
tio increased but it reduces the width of PB and the
ns control mode changes to simple ON and OFF mode.
an
d  Hence offset constitutes the inherent disadvantage
Co of P controller mode.
nt
rol
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U Illustration of
NI OFFSET
Electronic Proportional
T-
Controller
2
Ba
sic
co
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U Illustration of
NI OFFSET
Proportional Controller
T-
2
Ba
sic
co
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U Illustration of
NI OFFSET
Advantages of Proportional Controller
T-
2  Construction is simple
 These controllers has high loop gain
Ba
 It has steady state tracking accuracy
sic
 It improves the disturbances signal reduction
co
 It stabilizes the gain and makes the system
nt
more stable
rol Dis-advantages of Proportional Controller
Ac
tio  It cannot accommodate load change without
ns sustained deviation.
an  It produces the constant steady state error.
d  For very large gain it leads to instability of the
Co system
nt  It has a sluggish i.e. slow response for wide
rol proportional band.
ler  It makes the system less sensitive to parameter
variation
U Contiguous Controller Mode
Integral Control
NI Action
T-  This mode is an extension of floating control mode.
2 Unlike the previous discontinuous mode, the rate of
Ba change of controller output is not constant at ±KF
sic but is directly proportional to error.
co The analytic expression may be written as
nt
rol e
Ac
tio e (1)
ns where, KI is integral
an scaling
d From (1), the rate of controller o/p is proportional to the error.
Co Hence, when error comes, the controller responds by sending an
nt output at a rate that depends upon the size of the error and
rol
integral scaling KI
ler
U Contiguous Controller Mode
Integral Control
NI Action
T-
2
Ba
sic
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U Contiguous Controller Mode
Integral Control
NI Action
T-  From Eqn (1), the rate of controller o/p is proportional to 
2 the  error.  Hence,  when  error  comes,  the  controller 
Ba responds by sending an output at a rate that depends upon 
sic the size of the error and integral scaling KI.
co
nt   for particular error, the output will begin to increase at a 
rol
rate KI %/ sec for every 1% of error.
Ac
tio  
ns
(2)
an Where P(0) is initial value of controller o/p when error is zero
d
Co  This  integral  scaling  K
I is  oftenally  expressed  in  term  of  integral   
nt time Ti
rol
ler                         KI =                                                    (3)
U Contiguous Controller Mode
Integral Control
NI Action
T- From Eqn (2) and (3)
2  
Ba (4)
sic
co The unit of integral time is seconds or minutes
nt
rol The transfer function of the integral controller action is obtained 
Ac by applying LT to Eqn (4)
tio  
ns E(s) (5)
an
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U Contiguous Controller Mode
Integral Control
NI Action
T-  The  I  controller  adds  the  system  deviation  over  time.  It 
2 integrates the system deviation. 
Ba    As  a  result,  the  rate  of  change  (and  not  the  value)  of  the 
sic manipulated  variable  is  proportional  to  the  system 
co deviation.
nt    This  is  demonstrated  by  the  step  response  of  the  I 
rol controller:  if  the  system  deviation  suddenly  increases,  the 
Ac manipulated variable increases continuously.
tio  The greater the system deviation, the steeper the increase in 
ns the manipulated variable.
an  For this reason the I controller is not suitable for totally 
d
compensating remaining system deviation. 
Co
 If the system deviation is large, the manipulated variable 
nt
rol changes quickly.
ler
U Contiguous Controller Mode
Integral Control
NI Action
T-  As  a  result,  the  system  deviation  becomes  smaller  and  the 
2 manipulated  variable  changes  more  slowly  until 
Ba equilibrium is reached.
sic  A  pure  I  controller  is  unsuitable  for  most  controlled 
co systems, as it either causes oscillation of the closed loop or it 
nt responds  too  slowly  to  system  deviation  in  systems  with  a 
rol long time response.
Ac  In practice there are hardly any pure I controllers
tio
ns
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U Characteristics of Integral Control
NI Action
 assume a step change in deviation,
T- Let     e = A  [step change]
2 From the fig. A
Ba             t the main
sic disadvantage of
co integral action is
nt that, its response
rol to error is slow.
Ac But however, due
tio to its basic
ns nature of rate of
an change of it
d
output, it
Co
eliminates the
nt
rol error and brings
ler back the
Figure. A controlled
U Characteristics of Integral Control
NI Action
 Since the rate of change of controller output can be reset at 
T- any instant of time t by changing Ti.
2  This mode is oftenally referred as RESET  CONTROLLER 
Ba MODE.  the  integral  time  Ti  is  also  known  as  RESET 
sic TIME.
co
nt
rol   Let  see  the  reset  effect  of  the  integral  controller 
Ac action on error by taking a first order process
tio
ns
an
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Co
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rol
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U Characteristics of Integral Control
NI  Action
T-
2 Let                        R(s)  =            [step change]
Ba
sic
co
nt
rol
Ac
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ns
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U Characteristics of Integral Control
NI Action
T-
2  Thus  it  can  be  established  that  integral  control  action 
Ba successfully  eliminates  the  error,  but  in  the  process,  it 
sic response is  sluggish.
co
nt 
  The  integral  action,  due  to  its  basic  nature,  might 
rol
introduces  oscillation  in  the  controlled  variable  about  the 
Ac
tio
set  point  value,  whenever  it  deviates  from  the  set  point 
ns values.
an
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Co
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U Integral Control
NI Why not “Integral action” ????Action
T-
2 The problem for integral controller is that, if there is 
Ba a zero change in slope, the controller output holds to 
sic
co
a constant value. This is called integral windup. The 
nt only way to cut the wind up is to put a negative error 
rolIntegrator windup mechanism
Ac
tio Windup  :  When  the  controller  reaches  the  actuator 
ns
limit,  then  the  actuator  becomes  saturated  and  the 
an
d system effectively operates in open loop. 
Co
nt
The  integral  term  and  the  controller  output  may 
rol become really large = large overshoot 
ler
U Integral Control
Action
NI The  controller  signal  remains  saturated  even  if  the 
T- error begins to increase; hence, very bad transients
2
Ba
sic Example: When  a  car  is  on  a  steep  hill,  the  throttle 
co saturates  when  the  cruise  control  attempts  to 
nt maintain speed 
rol
Ac
tio
How to avoid integrator windup? 
ns
an There are many ways to avoid integral windup. One 
d method is demonstrated in Fig. B
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U Integral Control
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U Integral Control
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NI  This  kind  of  system  has  an  extra  feedback  path 
T- that  is  generated  by  measuring  the  actual 
2 actuator  output,  or  the  output  of  a  model  of  the 
Ba
saturating actuator.
sic
co
nt  This  form  an  error  signal  (  es)  as  the  difference 
rol between  the  output  of  the  controller  (v)  and 
Ac
tio output of actuator (u).      
ns                i.e       es =  u – v
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d
Co  this error signal is feedback to the input of 
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the integrator through gain Kt.
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 This signal es is zero,  when there is no saturation, 
T-
2 consequently there  is  no  effect of  extra  feedback 
Ba on the system. 
sic
co   when the actuator is saturated, consequently the 
nt error  signal  (es)  is  feedback  to  the  integrator  in 
rol such a way that es goes toward zero. This implies 
Ac
tio that  controller  output  is  kept  close  to  the 
ns saturation limit. 
an  The controller output will then change as soon as 
d
Co the  error  changes  sign  and  integral  windup  is 
nt avoided.
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NI Advantages of Integral Controller
T-  It reduces steady state error i.e. effect of offset. 
2  It provides high controlled output at a particular 
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sic time after the error generated is for high value of 
co KI. 
nt  It  responds  to  the  continued  existence  of 
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Ac deviation.
tio Dis-advantages of Integral Controller
ns
 It is never used alone. 
an
d  It  makes  the  system  unstable  for  oscillatory 
Co response. 
nt  It  introduces  hunting  in  the  system  response 
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about its steady state condition.
U Integral Control
Electronic Integral Controller Action
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U Derivative Control
NI Derivative Control Action Action
T- In a derivative control mode, the controller
2 output is proportional to the derivative of the
Ba error. So the output  can be expressed as
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NI Characteristics of Derivative Control Action 
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2  If  error  is  zero  or  the  error  is  constant  in  time, 
Ba the mode provides no output. 
sic
co  If  there  is  an  error,  for  every  1%  -per-second 
nt
rol rate of change of error, the mode contributes an 
Ac output of KD percent. 
tio
ns  For  direct  action,  a  positive  rate  of  change  of 
an
d error  produces  a  positive  derivative  mode 
Co output.
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Why not “ Derivative” ? Action
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T-
2  A  step  change  in  set  point  causes  a  false  step 
Ba error for the derivative controller. 
sic
co  This step change causes the derivative part of the 
nt
rol controller  to  saturate  the  overall  controller 
Ac output.  This  ultimately  forces  the  final  control 
tio element  to  go  to  hard  Off  mode.  This  is  called 
ns
derivative overrun. 
an
d
Co  The  solution  to  this  problem  is  to  feed  the 
nt derivative  controller  with  process  variable  (PV) 
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instead of error 
U Derivative Control
NI Action
T- Examines  the  rate  of  change  of  the  output  of  the 
2 process
Ba  The faster the change, the stronger the action 
sic    The  derivative  of  the  output  (slope)  is  multiplied 
co by a constant, Kd
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U Derivative Control
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NI  Differential control is insensitive to slow changes
T-    If  the  variable  is  parallel  to  the  set  point,  no 
2 change is made (slope = 0) 
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an  Differential  control  is  very  useful  when 
d combined with P and I control 
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                                  PID control
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NI Advantages of Derivative Action
Controller
T-
2  It can overcome the overshoot and
Ba severe cycling.
sic  It has a rapid response to counter the
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effect of rapidly changing errors.
rol  It responds to the changes of the
Ac speed and direction to the deviation.
tio  It does not affect the steady state
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an error directly, but anticipates the
d error.
Co  It increases the stability of the
nt system by initiating an early
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U Derivative Control
NI Action
Dis-advantages of Derivative
T- Controller
2  It cannot be used alone, since it
Ba cannot give any output for zero or
sic
co constant error.
nt  It is ineffective for slowly changing
rol
Ac error and hence causes the drift.
tio  It amplifies the noise signal and
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an causes a saturation effect on the
d system.
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 It does not eliminate the steady
rol state error. (offset)
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U Derivative Control
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2 Q. Derivative control action with a gain
Ba
sic
of KD = 0.04% / (%/min) is needed to
co control flow through a pipe. The flow
nt surges with a minimum period of 2.2 s.
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The input signal has a range of 0.4 to
tio 2.0 V, and the output varies from 0.0 to
ns 5.0 V. Develop the op amp derivative
an action circuit.
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NI Solution: Action
T- First we find the appropriate
2
Ba
circuit gain, G D . The derivative gain
sic should first be converted to the units of
co seconds:
 
nt
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Ac  
tio =
ns
an
d This result says that for every 1% / s rate of
Co change of input, the output should change by
nt 2.4%.
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So, 1% / s of the input is
T- (0.01)(1.6 V/ s) =
2 0.016 V/ s.
Ba Then 2.4% of the output is simply
sic (0.024)(5) = 0.12V.
co So, GD = (0.12 V / 0.016 V / s) = 7.5 s = R 2 C
nt
rol Le t C = 20 µF, R 2=375 kΩ
Ac To find, we need the maximum frequency. If the
tio minimum period is 2.2 s, then the maximum
ns frequency is 1/2.2s = 0.45Hz.
an
From the design guidelines, we set
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2 π fmax R1 C =0.1 = 2 π (0.45) R1 20
nt µFWe can now solve for
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