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Forests are local or regional segments of landscape in which biological and ecological conditions and
processes are dominated by the presence of trees.
Forest Ecology:
Ecology is defined as the study of interrelationship of different organisms with each other and with their
environment. It is concerned with the general principles that apply to both animals and plants.
Forest Ecosystem:
An ecosystem consists of the biological community that occurs in some locale, and the physical and
chemical factors that make up its non-living or abiotic environment.
Component of Forest Ecosystem:

% of forest
Types of Forest:
Depending upon the climatic conditions forests can be of different types:
1. Tropical Rain Forest
2. Tropical Deciduous forests
3. Tropical Scrub Forests
4. Temperate Rain Forests
5. Temperate Deciduous Forests
6. Evergreen Coniferous Forests
Depending upon the leaf types forests can be of different types:

Forest Vertical distribution of vegetation

1. Evergreen Forest
Coniferous Forest Broad Leaved Forest 2. Deciduous Forest
3. Thorn Forest
4. Mangroove

Forest Ecosystem:

Forest Ecosystem

Abiotic Component Biotic Components

Rock and Mountain Plants and Animals
Pyramid of Forest Ecosystem
Division of vegetation in different zones Forest Types in India
Tropic Pyramid
Tropical Forest
Forest Structure
• Tropical forests occupy regions that
lack a distinct period of winter

• In tropical regions, it is the

seasonality of rainfall that
determines the type of forest that
occurs in a particular area.

• Tropical forests are known for their

immense diversity of plants and
animals. Food Web
Temperate Forest
• Most temperate forests are
made up of broad-leaved
deciduous species.
• Differences in their
geographic distributions are
related to both climate and
resource availability.
Boreal or Taiga Forest
• Boreal forests are characterized by
relatively low species diversity.
• Needle-leaf coniferous trees are the
dominant tree type .
• Boreal forests or ‘taiga’ ecosystems occur
at high latitudes and upper elevations.
• These conditions are beyond that which
can be tolerated by most broadleaved
deciduous species.
Coniferous Forest
• Coniferous forest ecosystems are
found in regions of the Earth that
experience somewhat long and cold
winters, with summer being much
• Additionally, this biome is found
high atop mountains where
temperatures tend to be lower and
winter tends to last longer.
• Common life forms living in this
biome are evergreen trees, small
mammals such as rodents, large
mammals such as moose and deer,
and a variety of insects, spiders, and
plant life.