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Chapter 10

Patterns of Inheritance

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Genetics Explains and Predicts
Inheritance Patterns

Genetics can explain how


these kittens look different.

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Figure 9.1
Genetics Explains and Predicts
Inheritance Patterns

Analyzing their genes can also


help predict the appearance of
their offspring.

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Figure 9.1
Genetics Explains and Predicts
Inheritance Patterns

But most genes encode


proteins that have nothing to
do with outward appearance.
The enzymes essential to these
kittens’ lives are also the
products of genetics.

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Figure 9.1
Genetics Explains and Predicts
Inheritance Patterns

Studying genetics also allows


scientists to breed superior
crops and doctors to track
genetic illnesses.

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Figure 9.1
Chromosomes Are Packets of
Genetic Information

Recall that DNA is wound


tightly into chromosomes.

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Figure 10.1
Chromosomes Are Packets of
Genetic Information

Cells with only one set of


chromosomes, such as sex cells,
are haploid.

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Figure 10.1
Chromosomes Are Packets of
Genetic Information

When two haploid cells fuse


during fertilization, a diploid
zygote with two full sets of
chromosomes is formed.

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Figure 10.1
Chromosomes Are Packets of
Genetic Information

Most cells of a mature


individual are diploid.

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Figure 10.1
Chromosomes Are Packets of
Genetic Information

Homologous chromosomes
have the same genes, but
might have different versions
(alleles) of those genes.

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Figure 10.1
Chromosomes Are Packets of
Genetic Information

Diploid cells therefore have


two alleles for each gene.
These alleles might be
identical (gene A) or
different (gene B).

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Figure 10.1
Chromosomes Are Packets of
Genetic Information

Each gene’s locus is its location


on a chromosome.

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Figure 10.1
10.1 Mastering Concepts

How do meiosis, fertilization, diploid cells,


and haploid cells interact in a sexual life
cycle?

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Mendel Uncovered Basic Laws
of Inheritance

Gregor Mendel used pea plants


to study heredity.

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Figure 10.2
Mendel Uncovered Basic Laws
of Inheritance

Hand-pollinating plants allowed Mendel to control


plant breeding experiments.

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Figure 10.3
Mendel Uncovered Basic Laws
of Inheritance

Self-fertilizing and cross-fertilizing in different combinations


allowed Mendel to deduce the principles of inheritance.

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Figure 10.3
Mendel Uncovered Basic Laws
of Inheritance

True-breeding plants produce offspring identical to themselves.

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Figure 10.4
Mendel Uncovered Basic Laws
of Inheritance
Dominant alleles exert their effects whenever they are present.
Crossing a yellow-seed plant with a green-seed plant always yields
some yellow seeds. Yellow seed color is therefore dominant.

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Figure 10.4
Mendel Uncovered Basic Laws
of Inheritance
A recessive allele is one whose effect is masked
if a dominant allele is also present.
Recessive alleles usually encode nonfunctional proteins.

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Figure 10.4
Mendel Uncovered Basic Laws
of Inheritance
If yellow seed color is dominant, why are some seeds green
when a yellow-seed plant is crossed with a green-seed plant?
We need more information before we can fully answer this question.

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Figure 10.5
Mendel Uncovered Basic Laws
of Inheritance

But the answer has to do with each


plant having two alleles for each
gene (because of their homologous
pairs of chromosomes).

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Figures 10.6
Mendel Uncovered Basic Laws
of Inheritance

A genotype represents an
individual’s two alleles for one
gene. The genotype confers a
phenotype, or observable
characteristic.

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Figures 10.6
Mendel Uncovered Basic Laws
of Inheritance

• Homozygous dominant individuals


have two dominant alleles for a gene.
• Heterozygous individuals have one
dominant and one recessive allele.
• Homozygous recessive individuals
have two recessive alleles.

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Figures 10.6
Mendel Uncovered Basic Laws
of Inheritance
It is possible to look at offspring to
determine the genotype of the
parent. As we’ll see, Punnett
squares help solve these puzzles.

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Figures 10.5, 10.6
10.2 Mastering Concepts

Distinguish between dominant and


recessive, heterozygous and homozygous,
phenotype and genotype, wild-type and
mutant.

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The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene

A Punnett square
uses the genotypes of
the parents to reveal
which alleles the
offspring may inherit.

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Figure 10.7
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene
In this example, a
female parent that is
heterozygous for seed
color is crossed with
a male parent that is
also heterozygous for
seed color.

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Figure 10.7
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene

This is a monohybrid
cross since both
parents are
heterozygous for the
one gene being
evaluated.

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Figure 10.7
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene
Genotype Gg
indicates that all
diploid cells,
including germ cells,
in these parents have
both dominant and
recessive seed color
alleles.

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Figure 10.7
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene
When germ cells
divide by meiosis,
chromosomes (and
the alleles on those
chromosomes) are
randomly distributed
among gametes.

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Figure 10.7
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene

A gamete from the


female parent and a
gamete from the
male parent then
unite at fertilization.

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Figure 10.7
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene

If both gametes carry


dominant alleles, the
offspring will inherit
two dominant alleles.

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Figure 10.7
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene
If one gamete carries
a dominant allele and
the other carries a
recessive allele, the
offspring will be
heterozygous.

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Figure 10.7
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene
If one gamete carries
a dominant allele and
the other carries a
recessive allele, the
offspring will be
heterozygous.

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Figure 10.7
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene

If both gametes carry


recessive alleles, the
offspring will inherit
two recessive alleles.

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Figure 10.7
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene

This Punnett square


therefore represents
all possible offspring
that might result
from these parents.

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Figure 10.7
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene

This Punnett square


also shows the
relative proportion of
the offspring
phenotypes and
genotypes.

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Figure 10.7
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene

On average, three
offspring will have
yellow seeds for
every one with green
seeds.

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Figure 10.7
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene
On average, one
offspring will have
genotype GG for
every two with Gg
and for every one
with gg.

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Figure 10.7
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene
Punnett squares allow us to
determine the genotypes of these
yellow-seed pea plants.

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Figures 10.5, 10.6
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene
Punnett squares also help us
answer this question:
If yellow seed color is dominant,
why are some seeds green when
a yellow-seed plant is crossed
with a green-seed plant?

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Figures 10.5, 10.6
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene
If a cross between a yellow-
seed pea plant (GG or Gg) and
a green-seed pea plant (gg)
yields all yellow seeds, the
yellow-seed parent is
homozygous dominant.

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Figures 10.6, 10.8
The Simplest Punnett Squares Track the
Inheritance of One Gene
If the cross yields some green
seeds, the yellow-seed parent
is heterozygous.

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Figures 10.6, 10.8
Meiosis Explains Mendel’s
Law of Segregation
Punnett squares summarize meiosis and fertilization.

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Figure 10.9
Meiosis Explains Mendel’s
Law of Segregation
The two alleles for the G gene are packaged into separate
gametes, which then combine at random.

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Figure 10.9
Meiosis Explains Mendel’s
Law of Segregation
Can you create a Punnett square representing
the information in this figure?

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Figure 10.9
Mendel’s Law Applied to Humans

Punnett squares are


also useful for
tracking the
inheritance of genetic
disorders, such as
cystic fibrosis.

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Figure 10.10
Clicker Question #1
Cystic fibrosis is caused by a recessive allele.
If a healthy carrier and an affected individual
have a child, what is the chance the child will
be affected?

A. 1/4
B. 1/3
C. 1/2
D. 3/4
E. 1

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Clicker Question #1
Cystic fibrosis is caused by a recessive allele.
If a healthy carrier and an affected individual
have a child, what is the chance the child will
be affected?

A. 1/4
B. 1/3
C. 1/2
D. 3/4
E. 1

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10.3 Mastering Concepts

What is a monohybrid cross, and what are


the genotypic and phenotypic ratios
expected in the offspring of the cross?

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Tracking Two-Gene Inheritance May
Require Large Punnett Squares
Two genes on different chromosomes can be combined into
one large Punnett square.

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Figure 10.11
Meiosis Explains Mendel’s Law of
Independent Assortment
Based on dihybrid crosses, Mendel proposed the law of
independent assortment, which states that the segregation of
alleles for one gene does not influence the segregation of alleles for
another gene.

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Figure 10.12
Clicker Question #2
Why is it impossible for one of the female
gametes to have genotype rr?

A. Each germ cell only has one r allele.


B. Each gamete can only receive two alleles,
and one must be a y.
C. The r alleles separate during meiosis.

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Figure 10.11
Clicker Question #2
Why is it impossible for one of the female
gametes to have genotype rr?

A. Each germ cell only has one r allele.


B. Each gamete can only receive two alleles,
and one must be a y.
C. The r alleles separate during meiosis.

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Figure 10.11
The Product Rule Replaces Complex
Punnett Squares
Tracking two or more genes on one Punnett square is challenging
and time-consuming. The product rule simplifies these problems.

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Figure 10.13
The Product Rule Replaces Complex
Punnett Squares
The chance that two independent events will both occur, equals
the product of the individual chances that each event will occur.

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Figure 10.13
The Product Rule Replaces Complex
Punnett Squares
For example, the probability that an offspring inherits
genotype Rr Gg Tt is equal to the probability of Rr (1/2) times
the probability of Gg (1/2) times the probability of Tt (1/2).

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Figure 10.13
Clicker Question #3
A male with genotype Qq Bb Dd is crossed
with a female with genotype qq bb dd. What
proportion of the offspring will be
homozygous recessive for all three genes?

A. 1/2
B. 1/3
C. 1/4
D. 1/6
E. 1/8

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Clicker Question #3
A male with genotype Qq Bb Dd is crossed
with a female with genotype qq bb dd. What
proportion of the offspring will be
homozygous recessive for all three genes?

A. 1/2
B. 1/3
C. 1/4
D. 1/6
E. 1/8

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10.4 Mastering Concepts

How does the law of independent


assortment reflect the events of meiosis?

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Genes on the Same Chromosome
Are Linked
The product rule cannot be used if genes are linked,
because inheriting one allele influences the likelihood
of inheriting a linked allele.

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Figure 10.15
Genes on the Same Chromosome
Are Linked
However, because of crossing over,
linked alleles are not always inherited together.

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Figure 10.15
Genes on the Same Chromosome
Are Linked
The probability of a crossover event occurring between two
linked alleles is proportional to the distance between the genes.

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Figure 10.16
Linkage Maps Derive from
Crossover Frequencies

The letters below the linkage map of this chromosome


represent alleles. The numbers above represent crossover
frequencies relative to y.

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Figure 10.16
Linkage Maps Derive from
Crossover Frequencies

Crossing over frequently separates y and r but rarely separates


y and w. Therefore, even without this diagram, one could infer
that y is nearer to w than to r.

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Figure 10.16
10.5 Mastering Concepts

Explain how to use crossover frequencies to


make a linkage map.

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Gene Expression Can Alter
Mendelian Ratios
So far we discussed genes with two
alleles, in which the dominant allele
masks the recessive allele. But gene
expression does not always follow
that pattern.

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Figure 10.17
Gene Expression Can Alter
Mendelian Ratios
So far we discussed genes with two
alleles, in which the dominant allele
masks the recessive allele. But gene
expression does not always follow
that pattern.
• Incomplete dominance
• Codominance
• Pleiotropy

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Figure 10.17
Incomplete Dominance and
Codominance Add Phenotype Classes
In incomplete dominance, the
heterozygote has an
intermediate phenotype.

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Figure 10.17
Incomplete Dominance and
Codominance Add Phenotype Classes
The recessive allele (r2) still
encodes a nonfunctional protein.

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Figure 10.17
Incomplete Dominance and
Codominance Add Phenotype Classes
The heterozygote is pink because it
receives half the dose of the red
pigment conferred by the dominant
allele.

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Figure 10.17
Incomplete Dominance and
Codominance Add Phenotype Classes

In codominance, more
than one allele encodes
a functional protein.

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Figure 10.18
Incomplete Dominance and
Codominance Add Phenotype Classes

If two dominant alleles


are present, both
proteins encoded by
those alleles will be
represented in the
phenotype.

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Figure 10.17
Incomplete Dominance and
Codominance Add Phenotype Classes

In human blood types,


both IA and IB are
dominant alleles.
Genotype IAIB confers
red blood cells with
both A and B
molecules.

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Figure 10.17
Incomplete Dominance and
Codominance Add Phenotype Classes

The I gene also has a


recessive allele, i, which
encodes a
nonfunctional protein.
But the two dominant
alleles, IA and IB, make
the I gene codominant.

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Figure 10.17
Inheritance Patters Are Often Complicated

In pleiotropy, one gene has multiple effects on the phenotype. For


example, a gene might affect more than one biochemical pathway.

A1 A2 A3 Phenotype A
Gene
+
Protein
B1 X B2 B3 Phenotype B
(enzyme)

+
C1 C2 C3 Phenotype C
Biochemical
pathways
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Inheritance Patters Are Often Complicated

In this example, a gene encodes a protein that catalyzes reactions


in two biochemical pathways and blocks another.

A1 A2 A3 Phenotype A
Gene
+
Protein
B1 X B2 B3 Phenotype B
(enzyme)

+
C1 C2 C3 Phenotype C
Biochemical
pathways
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10.6 Mastering Concepts

How do incomplete dominance and


codominance increase the number of
phenotypes?

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Sex-Linked Genes Have Unique
Inheritance Patterns

In humans, females have


two X chromosomes. Males
have one X chromosome
and one Y chromosome.

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Figure 10.20
Sex-Linked Genes Have Unique
Inheritance Patterns

This Punnett square shows


that each fertilization event
has a 50% chance of
producing a female and a
50% chance of producing a
male.

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Figure 10.20
Sex-Linked Genes Have Unique
Inheritance Patterns

Which gamete, the sperm or


the egg, determines the sex
of the offspring?

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Figure 10.20
Sex-Linked Genes Have Unique
Inheritance Patterns

The egg will always carry an


X chromosome. The sex
chromosome in the sperm
therefore determines if the
offspring is female or male.

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Figure 10.20
Sex-Linked Genes Have Unique
Inheritance Patterns

X-linked recessive
disorders affect more
males than females.

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Figure 10.21
Sex-Linked Genes Have Unique
Inheritance Patterns

Females must
receive a recessive
allele on both X
chromosomes to
express an X-linked
recessive disorder.

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Figure 10.21
Sex-Linked Genes Have Unique
Inheritance Patterns

Males only have one


X chromosome. To
express a recessive
disorder, they only
need to inherit one
X-linked recessive
allele.

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Figure 10.21
Clicker Question #4
Hemophilia is a X-linked recessive disorder.
If an affected female and an unaffected
male have a boy, what is the chance he will
have hemophilia?

A. 0
B. 1/4
C. 1/2
D. 3/4
E. 1

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Clicker Question #4
Hemophilia is a X-linked recessive
disorder. If an affected female and an
unaffected male have a boy, what is the
chance he will have hemophilia?

A. 0
B. 1/4
C. 1/2
D. 3/4
E. 1

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Sex-Linked Genes Have Unique
Inheritance Patterns

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Table 10.1
X Inactivation Prevents “Doubling
Dosing” of Proteins
X inactivation prevents double-dosing of gene products. Each cell
in an XX individual, such as this female cat, randomly inactivates
one X chromosome.

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Figure 10.22
X Inactivation Prevents “Doubling
Dosing” of Proteins
If one X chromosome has an allele for orange fur and the other has
an allele for black fur, color patterns emerge when X chromosomes
are randomly inactivated.

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Figure 10.22
10.7 Mastering Concepts

Why do males and females express recessive


X-linked alleles differently?

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Pedigrees Show Modes of Inheritance

A pedigree depicts family


relationships and phenotypes.

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Figure 10.23
Pedigrees Show Modes of Inheritance

This pedigree tracks an


autosomal dominant disorder.

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Figure 10.23
Pedigrees Show Modes of Inheritance

This pedigree tracks an


autosomal recessive disorder.

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Figure 10.23
Pedigrees Show Modes of Inheritance

This pedigree tracks an X-


linked recessive disorder. Note
that more males are affected
than females.

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Figure 10.23
Clicker Question #5

This pedigree tracks an autosomal dominant


disorder. What is the genotype of I-2?

A. homozygous dominant
B. heterozygous
C. homozygous recessive

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Clicker Question #5

This pedigree tracks an autosomal dominant


disorder. What is the genotype of I-2?

A. homozygous dominant
B. heterozygous
C. homozygous recessive

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10.8 Mastering Concepts

How are pedigrees helpful in determining a


disorder’s mode of inheritance?

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The Environment Can Alter Phenotype

Many genes are affected by the


environment. For example, the
enzyme responsible for pigment
production in Siamese cat fur is
active only in cool body parts.

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Figure 10.24
Polygenic Traits Depend on More than
One Gene
Skin color is a polygenic trait; it is affected by more than one gene.

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Figure 10.25
Epistasis

Epistasis is a phenomenon where one gene affects the phenotype


of another gene. This happens when a gene influences different
phenotypes in an organism.
Epistasis

Example: Hair color is a trait that is controlled by MCR1


gene. Blonde, Brown and Black color is determined by
the amount of pigment eumelanin and red hair is
determined by pheomelanin.
MCR1 gene allows the conversion of pheomelanin to
eumelanin that is why its rare to have a red hair.
10.9 Mastering Concepts

How can the environment affect a


phenotype?

Cover: © Getty Images/Mike McKen


Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Investigating Life: Heredity and the
Hungry Hordes

Bollworm caterpillars
devastate cotton crops. But
some bollworms are
susceptible to Bt toxin.
Biologists have inserted the
gene encoding this toxin into
the cotton genome.

Section 10.9 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Figure 10.A
Investigating Life: Heredity and the
Hungry Hordes

In a mating between two Bt-resistant bollworms, all of the


offspring will also be resistant.

Section 10.9 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Figure 10.A
Investigating Life: Heredity and the
Hungry Hordes

However, if a resistant
bollworm mates with a
susceptible bollworm, only
some—and sometimes
none—of the offspring will
be resistant. (Would you
guess Bt resistance is
conferred by a dominant or
a recessive allele?)

Section 10.9 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Figure 10.A
Investigating Life: Heredity and the
Hungry Hordes

To avoid 100% resistance


among bollworms of future
generations, farmers must
plant some crops without
the toxin gene.

Section 10.9 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Figure 10.A
10.9 Mastering Concepts
Explain the logic of planting non-Bt crop buffer
strips around fields planted with Bt crops.

Crops with
the Bt toxin

Crops without the Bt toxin


Cover: © Getty Images/Mike McKen
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.