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Transport phenomena

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CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

increases convection/radiation heat transfer

• Heat conducts out the extended surface

• Convects or radiates to the surroundings

CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

• Heat Exchangers - gas industry

• Car radiators

• Fins very thin

Tube Fin

Heat Exchangers Car radiators

CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

Type of fine:

CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

qx x qx xx qc

dT dT

kA kA h(P.x)(T T )

dx x dx x x

dT dT

kA kA h(P.x)(T T )

dx x x dx x

CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

dT dT

dx dx x

kA x x

h(P)(T T )

x

x approach to 0

d 2T hP

2

(T T ) 0

dx kA

Define, (T T )

d 2 hP

2

0

dx kA

Assume that no heat lost from the tip of the fine or apply the

adiabatic condition at the tip.

condition become;

Boundary

x=0 o (To T )

d

x=L 0

dx

CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

1

2

Where;

o cosh mL

temperature is uniform at

any point in the cross

(Tx T ) coshmL x section

(To T ) cosh mL

dT

Fourier’s law: q kA

dx

x L

1

So, amount of heat released from the fin: q hPkA 2

To T Tanh mL

CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

LC=L+t/2

t With convection

insulation

L t/2

Original fin length L

Modified fin - adiabatic at the tip

Original Fin

For fins with negligible heat loss at the tip, the

boundary conditions involved are;

= o = To - T at x = 0

d

0 at x = L

dx

T T cos mL x q (hPkA)1/ 2 (To T ) tanh mL

To T cos mL

Fin Efficiency :

(hPkA)1/ 2 (To T ) tanh mL tanh mL

f

h( PL)(To T ) mL

For fins with convection at the tip surface, the

boundary conditions involved are;

sinh mL cosh mL

q (hPkA)1/ 2 (To T )

cosh mL sinh mL

(hPkA)1/ 2 (To T ) tanh mLc

Temperatur e Distributi on :

T T cosh mL x sinh mL x

To T cos mL sinh mL

Fin Efficiency :

t

(hPkA)1/ 2 (To T ) tanh mL tanh mL where Lc L rectangula r @ circular fin

f 2

h( PLc )(To T ) mL D

Lc L pin fin

4

For long fins, we assume that the temperature at the

fin tip approaches the temperature T of the

surrounding fluid.

where

A cross - sectional area of the fin (m 2 ) wt

L 3(1 / m)1/ 2 P parameter of the fin (m) 2w 2t

Tfin tip T

1/ 2

hA

fin tip Biot no.

kP

1/ 2

hP

m

kA

Temperatur e Distributi on :

q f A f h(To T )

T T f actual

e mx qideal A f h(To T )

To T where A f outside surface area of the fin PLc wt

circular fin A f 2 Lc r1 r1

2 2

longitudin al fin A f 2 wLc

q (hPkA)1/ 2 (To T ) 1

1/ 2

f

m

L

ro q qbare q fin

ho At (To T ) f ho A f (To T )

T 1 1

Ti (To T )

ho At f ho At

T ho

(To T )

To

1

ho ( At f At )

ri

(To T )

R

where

At area of bare tube/expo sed

A f area of fin

CONDUCTION: Extended Surface; long fin

Example of temperature

distribution along the long fin with

constant cross section area.

Temperature at the tip is

constant at TL

Boundary condition;

x=xo T=Tb

x=L T=TL

hp

x

kA c

Tx T (Tb T )e

CONDUCTION: Extended Surface; Efficiency

fin

Maximum heat transfer heat from fin

if the entire fin were at base temperature

.

Qmax hA f Tb T

. .

Q f f Qmax f A f Tb T

.

Qf hpAc Tb T tanh mL tanh mL

fin

.

Q f . max hA f Tb T aL

.

Qf hpAc Tb T 1 kAc 1

long fin

.

Q f . max hA f Tb T L hp mL

CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

There are two type of tube fin which normally used in gas heat

exchanger:

o Circular or transverse fins

CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

CONDUCTION: Work Example

Steam in a heating system flows through tubes whose outer

diameter is 5 cm and whose walls are maintained at a

temperature of 180oC. Circular aluminium alloy 2024-T6

fins (k = 186 W/m.oC) of outer diameter 6 cm and constant

thickness 1 mm are attached to the tube. The space between

the fins is 3 mm, and thus there are 250 fins per m length of

the tube. Heat is transferred to the surrounding air at T =

25oC, with a heat transfer coefficient of 40 W/m2.oC.

Determine the increase in heat transfer from the tube per

meter of its length as a result of adding fins.

CONDUCTION: Work Example

outside surface as shown. The fins are 1/16 in. thick and extend 1 in.

from the outside surface of the tube.

.

(a) If the outside surface of the tube wall is at 250°F, the

surrounding air is at 80°F, and the convective heat-transfer co-

efficient is 8 Btu/hr ft2 °F, determine the percent increase in heat

transfer for the finned pipe over that for the un-finned pipe.

2, 5, 15, 50, and 100 Btu/hr ft2°F. Plot the percent increase in q

versus h. What; ; conclusions can be reached concerning this

plot?

CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

Example 4.13-2 Fin Efficiency and Heat Loss from Fin

A circular aluminum fin as shown in Fig. 4.13-3b (k = 222 W/m.K) is

attached to copper tube having an outside radius of 0.04 m. The length of

the fin is 0.04 m and the thickness is 2 mm. The outside wall or tube base

is at 523.2 K and the external surrounding air at 343.2 K has a convective

coefficient of 30 W/m2.K. Calculate the fin efficiency and the rate of heat

loss from the fin.

Tb To 523.2 K T 343.2 K

copper tub e

h 30 W/m 2 .K

aluminum f ?

k 222 W/m.K

q?

t 2 mm

L 0.04 m

t

Lc L

2

2 10 3

0.04

2

0.041

1

h 2 30

Lc 0.041

kt 222( 0. 002)

0.337

Lc r1 0.041 0.04

r1 0.04

2.025

Lc r1

Lc 0.337, 2.025 from the figure 4.13 - 5b, we get f 0.89

r1

A f 2 r1 Lc r1

2 2

2 2

0.03118 m 2

q f A f h(To T )

0.89(0.03117)(30)(523.2 343.2)

149.9 W

without fin,

q Ab h(To T )

(2rt )h(To T )

2 (0.04)( 2 10 3 )(30)(523.2 343.2)

2.71 W

Ti T Ti T

q

Ri R pipe Ro 1 ln( ro / ri ) 1

hi A 2kL h0 ( At f A f )

U i Ai (Ti T )

1 1

Ui

Ai R 1 ri ro Ai

ln

hi k w ri h0 ( At f A f )

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