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 The use of fins or extended surface on the outside heat

exchanger pipe wall is to increase the heat transfer.


CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

• Extended surfaces (fins) give added surface area that


increases convection/radiation heat transfer
• Heat conducts out the extended surface
• Convects or radiates to the surroundings
CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

• Example usage of extended surface in industry or daily life.


• Heat Exchangers - gas industry
• Car radiators
• Fins very thin

Tube Fin
Heat Exchangers Car radiators
CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

Type of fine:
CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

Energy balance for element x

qx x  qx xx  qc

dT dT
kA  kA  h(P.x)(T  T )
dx x dx x x

dT dT
kA  kA  h(P.x)(T  T )
 dx x x dx x
CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

dT dT

dx dx x
kA x x
 h(P)(T  T )
x
x approach to 0
d 2T hP
 2
 (T  T )  0
dx kA

Define,   (T  T )
 d 2 hP
2
  0
dx kA

Assume that no heat lost from the tip of the fine or apply the
adiabatic condition at the tip.

 condition become;
Boundary
x=0   o  (To  T )
d
x=L 0
dx
CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

Solve the differential equation;

 coshmL  x  m  hP /kA


1
2
 Where;
o cosh mL

Temperature distribution along the fin:  Assume that the


 temperature is uniform at
any point in the cross
(Tx  T ) coshmL  x  section

(To  T ) cosh mL

dT
Fourier’s law: q  kA
dx
 x L
1
So, amount of heat released from the fin: q  hPkA 2
To  T Tanh mL

CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

LC=L+t/2
t With convection
insulation

L t/2
Original fin length L
Modified fin - adiabatic at the tip
Original Fin
For fins with negligible heat loss at the tip, the
boundary conditions involved are;
 = o = To - T at x = 0
d
0 at x = L
dx

Temperatur e Distributi on : Heat Loss by Fin :


T  T cos mL  x  q  (hPkA)1/ 2 (To  T ) tanh mL

To  T cos mL

Fin Efficiency :
(hPkA)1/ 2 (To  T ) tanh mL tanh mL
f  
h( PL)(To  T ) mL
For fins with convection at the tip surface, the
boundary conditions involved are;

Heat Loss by Fin :


sinh mL   cosh mL
q  (hPkA)1/ 2 (To  T )
cosh mL   sinh mL
 (hPkA)1/ 2 (To  T ) tanh mLc

Temperatur e Distributi on :
T  T cosh mL  x    sinh mL  x 

To  T cos mL   sinh mL

Fin Efficiency :
t
(hPkA)1/ 2 (To  T ) tanh mL tanh mL where Lc  L   rectangula r @ circular fin
f   2
h( PLc )(To  T ) mL D
Lc  L   pin fin
4
For long fins, we assume that the temperature at the
fin tip approaches the temperature T of the
surrounding fluid.
where
A  cross - sectional area of the fin (m 2 )  wt
L  3(1 / m)1/ 2 P  parameter of the fin (m)  2w  2t

Tfin tip  T
1/ 2
 hA 
  fin tip Biot no.   
 kP 
1/ 2
 hP 
m 
 kA 
Temperatur e Distributi on :
q  f A f h(To  T )
T  T  f  actual 
 e  mx qideal A f h(To  T )
To  T where A f  outside surface area of the fin  PLc  wt

circular fin  A f  2 Lc  r1   r1
2 2

longitudin al fin  A f  2 wLc

Heat Loss by Fin : Fin Efficiency :


q  (hPkA)1/ 2 (To  T ) 1
1/ 2

 
f   
m
L
ro q  qbare  q fin
 ho At (To  T )   f ho A f (To  T )
T  1 1 
Ti  (To  T )   
 ho At  f ho At 
T ho
(To  T )
To 
1
ho ( At   f At )
ri
(To  T )

R
where
At  area of bare tube/expo sed
A f  area of fin
CONDUCTION: Extended Surface; long fin

Example of temperature
distribution along the long fin with
constant cross section area.
Temperature at the tip is
constant at TL

Boundary condition;
x=xo T=Tb
x=L T=TL

hp
x
kA c
Tx  T  (Tb  T )e
CONDUCTION: Extended Surface; Efficiency

Actual heat transfer rate from fin


 fin 
Maximum heat transfer heat from fin
if the entire fin were at base temperature

.
Qmax  hA f Tb  T 

. .
Q f   f Qmax   f A f Tb  T 

Efficiency for adiabatic at the tip;


 .
Qf hpAc Tb  T tanh mL tanh mL
  fin   
.
Q f . max hA f Tb  T  aL

Efficiency for long fin


.
 Qf hpAc Tb  T  1 kAc 1
long fin    
.
Q f . max hA f Tb  T  L hp mL
CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

There are two type of tube fin which normally used in gas heat
exchanger:

o Longitudinal or straight fins


o Circular or transverse fins
CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

Circular or transverse fins


CONDUCTION: Extended Surface

Longitudinal or straight fins


CONDUCTION: Work Example
Steam in a heating system flows through tubes whose outer
diameter is 5 cm and whose walls are maintained at a
temperature of 180oC. Circular aluminium alloy 2024-T6
fins (k = 186 W/m.oC) of outer diameter 6 cm and constant
thickness 1 mm are attached to the tube. The space between
the fins is 3 mm, and thus there are 250 fins per m length of
the tube. Heat is transferred to the surrounding air at T =
25oC, with a heat transfer coefficient of 40 W/m2.oC.
Determine the increase in heat transfer from the tube per
meter of its length as a result of adding fins.
CONDUCTION: Work Example

A 2-in.-OD stainless-steel tube has 16 longitudinal fins spaced around its


outside surface as shown. The fins are 1/16 in. thick and extend 1 in.
from the outside surface of the tube.
.
(a) If the outside surface of the tube wall is at 250°F, the
surrounding air is at 80°F, and the convective heat-transfer co-
efficient is 8 Btu/hr ft2 °F, determine the percent increase in heat
transfer for the finned pipe over that for the un-finned pipe.

(b) Determine the same information as in part (a) for values of h of


2, 5, 15, 50, and 100 Btu/hr ft2°F. Plot the percent increase in q
versus h. What; ; conclusions can be reached concerning this
plot?
CONDUCTION: Extended Surface
Example 4.13-2 Fin Efficiency and Heat Loss from Fin
A circular aluminum fin as shown in Fig. 4.13-3b (k = 222 W/m.K) is
attached to copper tube having an outside radius of 0.04 m. The length of
the fin is 0.04 m and the thickness is 2 mm. The outside wall or tube base
is at 523.2 K and the external surrounding air at 343.2 K has a convective
coefficient of 30 W/m2.K. Calculate the fin efficiency and the rate of heat
loss from the fin.
Tb  To  523.2 K T  343.2 K
copper tub e
h  30 W/m 2 .K

aluminum f ?
k  222 W/m.K
q?
t  2 mm

L  0.04 m

t
Lc  L 
2
2  10 3
 0.04 
2
 0.041
1
h 2  30 
Lc    0.041 
 
kt  222( 0. 002) 
 0.337

Lc  r1 0.041  0.04

r1 0.04
 2.025

Lc  r1
Lc  0.337,  2.025 from the figure 4.13 - 5b, we get  f  0.89
r1

 
A f  2 r1  Lc   r1
2 2

 2 0.04  0.041  0.04 


2 2

 0.03118 m 2
q   f A f h(To  T )
 0.89(0.03117)(30)(523.2  343.2)
 149.9 W

without fin,

q  Ab h(To  T )
 (2rt )h(To  T )
 2 (0.04)( 2  10 3 )(30)(523.2  343.2)
 2.71 W
Ti  T Ti  T
q 
Ri  R pipe  Ro  1 ln( ro / ri ) 1 
   
 hi A 2kL h0 ( At   f A f ) 
 U i Ai (Ti  T )

1 1
Ui  
Ai  R  1 ri  ro  Ai 
  ln    
 hi k w  ri  h0 ( At   f A f ) 