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Developing the Whole Person

Prof. Len Lorayes-Lozares

Asst. Prof.A
Two Philosophical Theories

Holistic Development
(Whole Person)

Dualism and Holism


Rene Descartes -

 "Father of Modern Philosophy"



People perceive things as

dual in character
“YIN” and “YANG”

Yin Yang is the concept

of duality forming a

The word Yin comes out to

mean “shady side” and Yang
“sunny side”.
The symbol for Yin Yang is
called the Taijitu.

Most people just call it the yin yang symbol in

the west. The taijitu symbol has been found in
more than one culture and over the years has
come to represent Taoism.
Holism – as a tendency in nature to form
wholes which are greater than the sum of
the parts through creative evolution.

Jan C. Smuts
(from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole,
entire") is the idea that systems
(physical, biological, chemical,
social, economic, mental, linguistic,
etc.) and their properties should be
viewed as wholes, not as collections
of parts.
Holism and Gestalt

Gestalt psychology is a school of thought that

looks at the human mind and behavior as a

Something that is made of many parts and

yet is somehow more than or different from
the combination of its part.

- symphony cannot be define by one

of its notes alone.

A car is made up of hundreds of different

Holistic development

is a process of self-actualization and learning that

combines an individual's mental, physical, social,
emotional and spiritual growth. The term can be
used to describe forms of alternative education that
are based on the more humanistic and democratic
outlooks. Its premise is that an individual finds
purpose and meaning in life through connections to
the natural world, the community and through
humanitarian values
Aspects of Holistic Development of a
1. Physiological or the physical attributes
including the five physical senses.

2. Cognitive or the intellectual

functions of the mind:
3. Psychological or how thinking, feeling, and
behaving interact and happen in a person.

4. Social or the manner by which an individuals

interacts with other individuals or group of
5. Spiritual or the attribute of a person’s
consciousness and beliefs including the
values and virtues that guide and put
meaning into a person’s life.
Are "Values" the Same as Virtues?

Values and Vitues

Values- the Foundation of Virtues

Values - highest psychological form

for accomplishment.
- Guiding principles that determine
individual morality and conduct.

- A collection of guiding principles; what

an individual considers to be morally
right and desirable in life, especially
regarding personal conduct.

A virtue is a trait or quality deemed to be

morally good and thus is valued as a foundation
of principle and good moral being.

Personal virtues are characteristics valued as

promoting collective and individual greatness.
How do the five aspects of Holistic
Development Interrelate and affect
each other ?

Understanding a person holistically

means that one aspect cannot be seen
in isolation because of a behavior alone
is not balance.
Feelings, Moods and Emotions

Paul Ekman is an American

psychologist who is a pioneer in the
study of emotions and their relation
to facial expressions.
Six basic emotions that human beings

Sadness HAPPY
Fear SAD



Emotion - Movare ( Latin Verb) to
move or be upset or agitated

to variations in level
of arousal, affective
state or mood,
movement, attitudes.

Tiffany Watt Smith

Different Emotion Theories

James-Lange Theory
Cannon-Bard Theory
Schachter-Singer Theory
Lazarus Theory
Facial Feedback Theory
James-Lange Theory
The James-Lange theory of emotion argues that an
event causes physiological arousal first and then we
interpret this arousal. Only after our interpretation of
the arousal can we experience emotion.

If the arousal is not noticed or is not given any

thought, then we will not experience any emotion
based on this event.
James-Lange Theory
EXAMPLE: You are walking down a dark alley late
at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you
begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your
breathing deepens. You notice these physiological
changes and interpret them as your body’s
preparation for a fearful situation.
You then experience fear.
Cannon-Bard Theory

The Cannon-Bard theory argues that we

experience physiological arousal and emotional at
the same time, but gives no attention to the role of
thoughts or outward behavior.
Cannon-Bard Theory

EXAMPLE: You are walking down a dark alley late

at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you
begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your
breathing deepens. At the same time as these
physiological changes occur you also experience the
emotion of fear.
Schachter-Singer Theory

According to this theory, an event causes

physiological arousal first. You must then identify
a reason for this arousal and then you are able to
experience and label the emotion.
Schachter-Singer Theory
EXAMPLE: You are walking down a dark alley late
at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you
begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your
breathing deepens. Upon noticing this arousal you
realize that is comes from the fact that you are
walking down a dark alley by yourself. This
behavior is dangerous and therefore you feel the
emotion of fear.
Lazarus Theory

Lazarus Theory states that a thought

must come before any emotion or
physiological arousal. In other words,
you must first think about your situation
before you can experience an emotion.
Lazarus Theory
EXAMPLE: You are walking down a
dark alley late at night. You hear
footsteps behind you and you think it
may be a mugger so you begin to
tremble, your heart beats faster, and
your breathing deepens and at the
same time experience fear.
Facial Feedback Theory
According to the facial feedback theory, emotion
is the experience of changes in our facial
muscles. In other words, when we smile, we then
experience pleasure, or happiness. When we
frown, we then experience sadness. it is the
changes in our facial muscles that cue our brains
and provide the basis of our emotions. Just as
there are an unlimited number of muscle
configurations in our face, so to are there a
seemingly unlimited number of emotions.
Facial Feedback Theory

EXAMPLE: You are walking down a dark alley

late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and
your eyes widen, your teeth clench and your brain
interprets these facial changes as the expression
of fear. Therefore you experience the emotion of
Are Feelings the same as Emotions?
Antonio D’Amasio, professor of neuroscience at
The University of California and author of several
books on the subject, explains it as:

Feelings are mental experiences of body states,

which arise as the brain interprets emotions,
themselves physical states arising from the
body’s responses to external stimuli. (The order
of such events is: I am threatened, experience
fear, and feel horror.)
Dr.Sarah Mckay, neuroscientist and author
of the Your Brain Health blog explains it as:

Emotions play out in the theater of the body.

Feelings play out in the theater of the mind.
Body and Mind

Feelings are sparked by emotions and colored

by the thoughts, memories, and images that
have become subconsciously linked with that
particular emotion for you. But it works the other
way around too.
Feelings and Emotions

emotions cause subconscious feelings which in turn

initiate emotions and so on, your life can become a
never-ending cycle of painful and confusing
emotions which produce negative feelings which
cause more negative emotions without you ever
really knowing why.
Feelings and Emotions

Your emotions and feelings play a powerful role in

how you experience and interact with the world
because they are the driving force behind many
behaviors, helpful and unhelpful.
Feelings and Emotions

In the gaps between emotion, feeling, and acting,

we all have the power to change and direct our
lives for the better.
Understanding your emotions and managing your
feelings with conscious thinking so they don’t hijack
your brain followed by conscious action can
actually change your brain through neuroplasticity,
the scientifically proven ability of your brain to
change form and function based on repeated
emotion, thought, and behavior, and change your
Attitudes and Behavior

Attitude is a feeling, belief, or opinion of
approval or disapproval towards something.
Behavior is an action or reaction that occurs in
response to an event or internal stimuli (i.e.,

Attitude and Behavior – Changing attitudes

to change behavior, Changing behavior to
influence attitudes
Attitude involves mind's predisposition to
certain ideas, values, people, systems,

Behaviour relates
to the actual
expression of
feelings, action or
inaction orally
or/and through
body language.
Can Attitude be Changed?
Attitude change based on emotions

“Our attitude toward life determines life’s attitude

towards us.”
Behavior can change attitude.
If the person riding the MRT changes the way he or
she behaves, like remaining calm, smiling and
avoiding jostling and giving dagger looks at those
that irritate him or her, then that persons attitude
about riding the MRT will be different the next time
he or she rides the train.
If that person can accept the fact that the train ride is
not exactly a joyful and pleasant ride, but not
necessarily a life- threatening situation, then that
person can take an attitudinal change by preparing
what is ahead and creating a more pleasant picture
of the people riding the MRT
5 Simple Things That Can Help Change
Your Attitude
1. Identify and understand what you want to
The first step towards change is clearly
understanding what needs to be changed. Setting
clear goals is the key to success in any endeavor.
When it comes to changing your attitude, you need
to do an honest and in-depth self-evaluation so you
could point out exactly which of your traits need to
be improved or totally changed.
2. Look for a role model

We all need to know that what we’re trying to

accomplish can in fact be achieved; that we can be
more optimistic, more social or more patient. Find
someone who has the kind of attitude that you
want to have, and let his or her life give you
inspiration and encouragement to move beyond
your temporary failures in your journey towards
becoming a better person.
3. Think about how your attitude
change will affect your life.

To be able to hurtle through all the difficulties that lie

ahead of you in your journey towards self
betterment, you need to figure out exactly what this
supposed change could bring to your life.
Will changing your attitude mean a happier family or
social life? Will a change in your attitude mean a
more successful career or business? Fix your mind
on the things that would come as a result of your
attitude change and you will have a greater chance
of reaching your goal.
4. Choose the right company.

As they say, “Bad company corrupts good

character.” You don’t expect yourself to be able to
change if you go on surrounding yourself with people
who possess all the negative traits that you want to
change. Consider befriending new people, especially
those who are optimistic and have a healthy attitude
towards life. You will see that your effort to change
will be easier with these kinds of people as friends.
5. Believe that you are able to change.

Often, the greatest obstacle between us and our

goals is ourselves or our inability to trust in what we
are able to do. If you don’t believe in yourself or
believe that you or your life can change, it just won’t
happen—you will either never start, or give up
quickly so you won’t have even given yourself the
opportunity to succeed.
When I face tensions in life, I'll
channel my negative emotion to
positive energy because this will
help me tackle them better.
Schwartz sees values as stable standards by
which we evaluate everything else, including the
appropriateness of any norms, attitudes, traits, or
virtues that may be suggested to us.

motivational goals

Shalom H. Schwartz –
Psychologist and cross-cultural
researcher from Hebrew
University of Jerusalem.
Three fundamental categories: Human

Our biological needs as individuals,

Our need to coordinate our actions with
The need of groups to survive and
Values can be seen as abstract concepts or beliefs
concerning a person’s goals and serve as guiding
standards in his or her life.

When we think of our values, we think of what is

important to us in our lives.
Social Progress
Equal Rights
Human Dignity
5 Core Values for the Work Place

Integrity- the quality of being honest and having

strong moral principles; moral uprightness
Accountability-the fact or condition of being
accountable; responsibility.
Diligence -careful and persistent work or effort.
Perseverance - steadfastness in doing something
despite difficulty or delay in achieving success.
Discipline-the practice of training people to obey
rules or a code of behavior, using punishment to
correct disobedience.
Defining goal: independent thought and action--
choosing, creating, exploring.

making your own decisions

and organizing your own work
rather than being told what to
do by managers ,teachers,
Defining goal: excitement, novelty, and challenge in

an action or thing that

causes someone or something
to become more active or
enthusiastic, or to
develop or operate:
Defining goal: pleasure or sensuous gratification for

- doctrine which holds

that the good is whatever
gives you pleasure and,
therefore, pleasure is the
standard of morality.
a feeling of happy
satisfaction and enjoyment.
Defining goal: personal success through
demonstrating competence according to social

the incentives or
purposes that
individuals have for is succeeding through hard
succeeding on a work, courage or skill.
given task” Explore inspirational
images, ideas and stories of
people achieving the

Defining goal: social status and prestige, control or

dominance over people and resources.

provides a simple framework for action that will

help any organization reduce risks and
achieve long-term sustainable value.
The 3 Power Values – How Commitment,
Integrity & Transparency Clear the
Roadblocks to Performance
Defining goal: safety, harmony, and stability of
society, of relationships, and of self.

- the degree of resistance to, or protection from,

harm. It applies to any vulnerable and valuable
asset, such as a person, dwelling, community,
item, nation, or organization.

Defining goal: restraint of actions, inclinations, and

impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate
social expectations or norms.

- compliance with standards, rules, or laws.

"conformity to regulations"
- behavior in accordance with socially accepted
- conventions or standards.
"loyalty to one's party need not imply
unquestioning conformity"
Defining goal: respect, commitment, and
acceptance of the customs and ideas that one's
]culture or religion provides.

the transmission of customs or

beliefs from generation to
generation, or the fact of being
passed on in this way.

Defining goal: preserving and enhancing the welfare of

those with whom one is in frequent personal contact
(the ‘in-group’)

disposition to do good a : an act of kindness

b : a generous gift
Defining goal: understanding, appreciation, tolerance,
and protection for the welfare of all people and for

Universalism is a religious, theological, and

philosophical concept with universal application or
applicability. Universalist doctrines consider all
people in their formation. In terms of religion, in a
broad sense,universalism claims that religion is a
universal human quality.
The motivational goals that
characterize the 10 values Schwartz
identified were: openess to change;
self –transcendence; self
-enhancement and conversation
Self-enhancement is a type of motivation that
works to make people feel good about themselves
and to maintain self-esteem. This motive becomes
especially prominent in situations of threat, failure or
blows to one's self-esteem. Self-enhancement
involves a preference for positive over
negative self-views.

Self-transcendence is a personality trait

associated with experiencing spiritual ideas such
as considering oneself an integral part of the
Openness to Change
Openness to Change is the 2nd essential leader
quality. Change is an undeniable part of life. The
reality is that ife stops when change stops. A key
part of leadership is recognizing and adapting to
change, and making choices about how change
happens when you need to.
When you become open to change you get to
choose the kind of change that happens and how it
will work for you and your organization.

the act of preserving, guarding or

protecting; wise use.
(1) Are there any values important to you that are not
part of the basic ten? Try to place them in one of
the ten by considering the motivation they
(2) Hedonism is becoming more important in most
Western societies. How is this likely to affect the
importance of the other values around the circle?
Which values are likely to become more
important along with hedonism and which ones
less important?
(3) Considering how much cultures differ, how can it
be that people in almost all societies organize
their values into the same circular structure?
(4) How are war, economic depression, or personal
crises, likely to affect our value priorities? Why?

(5) When people talk about values, they usually

mean ‘moral’ values. Which values are ‘moral’
and which are not? What makes a value ‘moral’?

(6) People often behave in ways that seem to

contradict their values. How can the value circle
help to explain this?