The Surgeons Of the Future


It is the study of controlling matter in the atomic and molecular scale.  Generally deals with devices with a dimension of 100nm or lesser.  Two main approaches in nanotechnology are Top-Down Approach and Bottom-Up TopBottomapproach 

‡It deals with use of Nanotechnology on devices especially transistors like the 45nm and 32nm technology.

‡Carbon Nanotubes which are allotropes of carbon have unique properties which make them useful in many applications.

‡Some of the Nanoelectronic devices are radios( which have been constructed around carbon nanotubes), Computers( Processors), Medical Diagnostics.

where they might be used to identify cancer cells and destroy them . and the measurement of their concentrations. .NANOROBOTICS      Nanorobotics is the technology of creating robots at a scale of 10^-9m. Another application is detection of toxic chemicals. in the environment . Rice university has demonstrated a single-molecule car singlewhich is developed by a chemical process and includes buckyballs for wheels. might be in medical technology. 10^They are also referred to as nanoids or nanobots The most useful applications of nanobots.

.NANOMEDICINES     It involves application of nanobots to the prevention and treatment of diseases. At the extreme. Nanobots might repair damaged cells. or correct genetic deficiencies by altering or replacing DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules. nanobots might replicate themselves. The most advanced form of nanomedicine involves use of nanobots as miniature surgeons. or get inside cells and replace or assist damaged intracellular structures .

In order to avoid damage to the blood vessels.Introducing the Nanobots into the body    The nanobots can be introduced via the circulatory system. smaller the nanobots. Circulatory system . We have 2 considerations in this regard: The first is that the size of the nanomachine determines the minimum size of the blood vessel that it can traverse. the better it is.

Introducing the Nanobots into the body    The second consideration is that we have to get it into the body without being too destructive. This requires that we gain access to a large diameter artery that can be traversed easily to gain access to most areas of the body in minimal time . Hence the nanobots are introduced into the body via the femoral artery located in the leg. Femoral Artery .

There are a number of problems associated with this method. (b) To be propelled. .Movement of Nanobots in the body    We can consider two possibilities: (a) To be carried to the site of operations. The first possibility is to allow the device to be carried to the site of operations by means of normal blood flow .

One or several of these motors could be used to power propellers that would push (or pull) the nanorobot through the bloodstream.Movement of Nanobots in the body For active propulsion a number of methods are available:  Propeller: An electric motor that fit within a cube 1/64th of an inch on a side is used. .

.Movement of Nanobots in the body  Cilia/ flagellae : We use some sort of vibrating cilia to propel the device.

the device could move along the walls of the circulatory system by means of appendages with specially designed tips. allowing for a firm grip without excessive damage to the tissue. .Movement of Nanobots in the body  Crawl along surface: Rather than have the device float in the blood. or in various fluids.

Sensing by the Nanobot  The Nanobot can use two types of sensors: Long range sensors and short range sensors. Another important use for sensors is to be able to locate the position of the nanorobot in the body. ShortShort-range : locate the defect in the body at a close range. LongLong-range : navigate to the site of the unwanted tissue. distinguish between healthy and unwanted tissue.     .

 ULTRASONIC Active mode : Signal is beamed into the body and the reflected signal is analyzed Passive mode : An ultrasonic signal of specific pattern is generated by the nanobot which is analyzed. .Obtaining data from the nanobots There can be several ways of retrieving data from the nanobots once they are in the body.

and subsequent analysis of the way in which atoms within the body react to the field.Obtaining data from the nanobots  NMR/MRI: This technique involves the application of a powerful magnetic field to the body. MRI Scanning .

X-Ray Unit .Obtaining data from the nanobots  X-rays: They have their own positives and negatives. dense tissues. However they might cause damage to very soft tissues. On the positive side they are able to penetrate even into very hard.

to guide the nanobot to the tissue that should be removed and away from tissue that should not be removed. b. . The first type will be used to do the final navigation. The second type of sensor will be used during the actual operation. these sensors will be used to help it find the rest of the path. When the device is within a short distance of the operation site.Controlling of Nanobots The nanobots can be controlled effectively using internal sensors. The sensors will be of two types: a.

Controlling of Nanobots We can have 3 main types of sensors:  Chemical: Chemical sensors can be used to detect trace chemicals in the bloodstream and use the relative concentrations of those chemicals to determine the path to take to reach the unwanted tissue. . allowing the people operating the device to steer it.  TV camera: This method involves us having a TV camera in the device and transmitting its picture outside the body to a remote control station.  Spectroscopic: This could be done either with a high-powered laser diode or by highmeans of an electrical arc to vaporize small amounts of tissue.

Powering up the Nanobot The power would be transmitted to the nanobot from outside the body . The problem would obviously be that the wire needs to fit into every place where the nanobot is traveling. Induced magnetic . This can be done in two ways: a.This can be done in 2 main ways:  Physical Connection: In this case we need some wire or cable to carry power to the bot. Ultrasonic b.  No physical connection: We transmit power to the nanobot without the use of wires or any sort of physical means to transfer the power.

Means of recovering the Nanobots from the body  If we have sufficient accurate control over the nanobot we can just retrace our path upstream. and also cause less wear and tear on the nanobot. Another possibility is to have the nanomachine anchor itself to a blood vessel that is easily accessible from outside. it would be a lot easier to steer a path through the body that traverses major blood vessels and winds up at a point where we can just filter the nanobot out of the bloodstream.  . and perform a small surgical operation to remove it. However. This will reduce the possibilities for difficulties.

. We shall look into a few applications.APPLICATIONS OF NANOBOTS Nanobots have a wide range of applications on account of their small size and less power consumption although they may be complex.

APPLICATIONS  Tumors: We must be able to treat tumors. cells grouped in a clumped mass. that is to say. While the technique may eventually be used to treat small numbers of cells in Lung tumor. the specified goal is to be able to destroy tumorous tissue .

The nanobot should be able to remove these deposits from the artery walls. . This will allow for both improving the flexibility of the walls of the arteries and improving the blood flow through them.APPLICATIONS Arteriosclerosis : This is caused by fatty deposits on the walls of arteries.

Blood Clot . By using a nanobot in the body to break up such clots into smaller pieces before they have a chance to break free and move on their own. They can block the flow of blood to vital area of the body.APPLICATIONS  Blood clots: These are caused due to the malfunction of platelets.

Ultrasonic 2. Laser . 1. and they can be broken up directly. direct access to the kidney stones can be obtained.APPLICATIONS  Kidney Stones: By introducing a nanorobot into the urethra.

Liver Stones .APPLICATIONS  Liver stones: Liver stones accumulate in the bile duct. Nanobots of the above type can be introduced into the bile duct and used to break up the liver stones as well.

etc in lungs: They could be very useful for the treatment of dirty lungs. and placing them where the natural processes of the body can dispose of them.  Remove or break down tar.APPLICATIONS  Burn and wound deriding: The nanobots can also be used to clean wounds and burns. Break Down Of Tar . This could be done by removing particles of tar and other pollutants from the surface of the alveoli.

 Bio-degradation of Treatment Agents : BioThe Nanobots can be constructed suitably so as to make them bio-degradable. Biological cilia cycle at ~30 Hz while mechanical Nanobots cycle up to ~20 MHz.ADVANTAGES OF NANOBOTS IN MEDICINE  Speed of Medical Treatment : Nanobots are incredibly quick when compared to speeds available from fibroblasts or leukocytes. bio- .

 Faster and More Precise Diagnosis: The analytic function of medical diagnosis requires rapid communication between the injected devices and the attending physician.ADVANTAGES OF NANOBOTS IN MEDICINE  Control of Nanomedical Treatment : A digital Bio-computer can be used to control the Biobot. can output the inputmessage of the results by testing literally in seconds. with their more diverse set of input-output mechanisms. . Nanobots.

ADVANTAGES OF NANOBOTS IN MEDICINE  Minimum Side Effects: Mechanical Nanobots may be targeted with virtually 100% accuracy to specific organs. Such Nanobots should have few if any side effects. and will remain safe even in large dosages because their actions can be digitally self-regulated using rigorous selfcontrol protocols. or even individual cellular addresses within the human body. . tissues.

     In 2007 Nobel prize was awarded to Frenchman Albert Fert and the German Peter Grünberg for their work in nanoscience . who formed EnGenelC Pty Ltd in 2001 discovered a very effective method which they call Trojan horse´ therapy to combat cancer National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and its partners developed antibodies that search and destroy breast cancer cells Studies conducted by Northwestern researchers are showing us that Nanodiomonds can be used as a vehicle for gene delivery they do it by by functionalizing the nanodiamond surface with PEI800 Research conducted by Michigan University have developed a nanotech coating for human brain implants that is capable of give long operational life . experiment conducted by US Researchers Australian Scientists Dr Jennifer MacDiarmid and Dr Himanshu Brahmbhatt. Use of nanotechnology for killing ovarian cancer cells.

all medical pain and suffering and thereby allow extension of human capabilities especially our mental capabilities.   . But the question of whether the Nanobots will be able to understand the emotions of humans (like a good doctor does to cure diseases) wherein most of the problems arise will haunt us forever. We feel that The Nanobots will virtually eliminate all the common diseases of the 20th century. These machines will face some unique physics.CONCLUSION  Nanotechnology promises futuristic applications such as microscopic robots that assemble other machines or travel inside the body to deliver drugs or do microsurgery.


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