You are on page 1of 15

THE ROLE OF

DESIRE
IN THE FORMATION
OF THE
Dolph Alphonse L. Verallo MASCULINE
AB – LIT 4
IDENTITY
Adviser:
Hannah Marie Aranas IN CEBUANO
Panelist:
Cindy Velasquez POETRY
RATIONALE
Philippine society is very much in line with
macho culture, and this has bred a myriad of
negative stereotypes about Filipino men.

Our knowledge of this “macho” aspect of the


male identity has been portrayed in a negative
manner, mostly in romantic movies and
television shows where we see movie plots
usually showcasing male protagonists who have
problems with alcoholism, gambling, drugs, and
adultery.
Statement of the Problem
This study aimed to analyze the representations of masculine
gender identity in selected Cebuano poetry written by male
Cebuano poets and members of the Bathalan-ong Anak sa
Dagang or BATHALAD writers’ group using psychoanalytical,
cultural, and gender criticism.

Specifically, this study aimed to do the following:


1. explore the manifestations of desire in the selected poems;
and,
2. examine the functions of desire in male gender identity
formation and practice.
Significance
The study may be used as reference for
classroom discussions on understanding the
male psyche and the mechanisms of patriarchy.

Insights from the study may guide Cebuano


poets in creating imagery, symbolisms, and
metaphors relating to desire and masculinity.

This study will shed light unto those who have


either read or just begun reading Cebuano
poetry with how desire plays in the lives and
identities of men.
Research Methodology
This study used 10 selected poems that were published
during 2008-2017 and retrieved from Kabisdak.

Freud’s and Lacan’s psychoanalysis were utilized in


examining how desire is structured, how it takes hold on a
person, and the search for the male identity.

Reuben Cañete’s Masculinity, Media and their Publics in the


Philippines: Selected Essays and Khael Quinain’s From
Person to Father: A Grounded Theory of Male Gender
Identity were used to look into the cultural and gender
aspect.
CHAPTER 2:
AN ANALYSIS OF THE
MANIFESTATIONS OF DESIRE
IN CEBUANO POEMS
WRITTEN BY MALE POETS
Categories of Desire
Desire for Pleasure
Pleasure presents itself as a coping mechanism that helps
the persona to alleviate a sense of loss.
Desire for Possession
Desire is formed from wanting to be with the object of desire
to fully possessing them out of the fear of having their
masculinity questioned or doubted.
Desire as Longing
Acts as a motivating force to help people achieve their goals,
but can also be torturing that hinders the persona from
moving forward.
Desire as a Destructive Force
Desire can also be destructive if not being held under
control, and is either harmful not only to the persona, but
also to the object of desire.
Masculine Identities
The Assertive Male
This is one of the most common of the identities and
found in almost all of the poems.
The personas assert themselves and take control of the
object of desire’s decisions and choices.

The Protector/Provider Male


This identity is related to being the provider, as well as
being concerned about the safety and welfare.
Furthermore, this identity connotes that a man has the
capability to be responsible.

The Logical Male


This identity does not conform or lacks the ideal qualities
of a masculine man, but rather, looks at the situation and
assesses whether it will be beneficial for them or not.
Findings
Masculinity concerns the cultural and societal standards
of how men present themselves.

Men will have to subscribe to the ideal masculinity, or


else their identity as a man comes into question.

Most of personas possess an assertive characteristic,


and desire to be with another person to satiate their
desire for reassurance in their identities because they
need this validation.
Conclusion
The poems may be seen as the struggles of men to
overcome the fear of emasculation, effeminacy, and
also, losing a place in society.

There are various forms of desire as there are various


masculine identities.

The “ideal masculinity” is really fragile, as opposed to


how society and culture portray it as unyielding and
enduring.

Each of the poet’s work illustrates their different


experiences and struggles in life in regards to dealing
with lack and addressing their desires.
Recommendations
A study that utilizes other frameworks, such as existentialism and
Roland Barthes’ views on desire, be used in analyzing desire in
Cebuano poetry.

A study that compares and contrasts the manifestations of desire as


presented by female writers from the group WILA (Women in Literary
Arts), and local male writers from BATHALAD.

A study that focuses on the gay perspective of desire while using


Cebuano fiction, especially Libulan, the Cebuano queer anthology.
Bibliography
Printed Sources
× Angeles, Leonora. “The Filipino Male as Macho-Machunurin: Bringing Men in Masculinities in Gender and Development
Studies.” Kasarinlan: Philippine Journal of Third World Studies, vol. 16, no. 1, 2001, pp. 15-28.
× Belk, Russell, Güliz Ger and Søren Askegaard 1996. Metaphors of Consumer Desire. Advances in Consumer Research
23:368-373.
× Bordo, Susan. The male body: A new look at men in both public and private. New York, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1999.
× Bordo, Susan. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. California: U of California P, 1993.
× Cañete, Reuben Ramas. Introduction. Masculinity, Media And Their Publics In The Philippines: Selected Essays, U of
Philippines P, 2014, pp. ix-xi.
× Castle, Gregory. The Literary Theory Handbook. UK, Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.
× De Berg, Henk. Freud’s Theory and its Use in Literary and Cultural Studies: An Introduction. New York, Camden House,
2004.
× Durado, Adonis. “Balaki ko ‘Day Samtang Gasakay Ta’g Habalhabal.” Dili Tanang Matagak Mahagbong. Trans. Merlie
Alunan, Cebu: ASTEISMUS, 2008, p. 3.
× Freud, Sigmund. On Metapsychology: The Theory of Psychoanalysis: ‘Beyond the Pleasure Principle,’ ‘The Ego and the Id’
and Other Works, edited by Angela Richards, Penguin, 1991, pp. 380-381.
× Goulimari, Pelagia. Literary Criticism and Theory: From Plato to postcolonialism. NY: Routledge. 2015.
× Hall, Donald. “Gender and Queer Theory.” The Routledge Companion to Critical and Cultural Theory, edited by Paul Wake
and Simon Malpas, Routledge, 2013, p. 107.
× Hirschberg, Stuart, and Terry Hirschberg. One World, Many Cultures. 6th ed., Pearson, 2007.
× Isonza, Vicky. Evaluating Masculinity and Gender-role Conflict: Basis for Deconstructing
× Gender Development in Social Dimensions. Dissertation, University of San Carlos, 2010.
× James, W. 1892/1961. Psychology: The briefer course. New York: Harper and Row.
× Kristeva, Julia. 1982. Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection. Trans. Leon S. Roudiez. New York: Columbia University
Press.
× Lacan, Jean-Jacques. Ecrits. trans. Alan Sheridan (UK: Tavistock Publications, 2001).
× Leitch, Vincent, Cain, William, et al. The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism Second Edition, edited by Leitch,
Vincent, Cain, William, et al. NY: W. W. Norton & Company. 2010. pp 1156 – 1163.
× Mojares, Resil. “Gugmang Kabus: Symbolic Action in Cebuano Fiction.” The Resil Mojares Reader, edited by Hope
Sabanpan-Yu, U of San Carlos P, 2015, pp. 20-21.
× Mojares, Resil. “I Never Sang For My Father.” Creative Nonfiction: A reader, edited by Christina Pantoja-Hidalgo, UP
Press, 2003, p. 191
× Petocz, Agnes. Freud, Psychoanalysis and Symbolism. Cambridge University Press, 1999.
× Quinain, Khael. From Person to Father: A Grounded Theory of Male Gender Identity. MS Thesis, University of San
Carlos, 2015.
× Ryan, Michael. An Introduction to Criticism: Literature, Film, Review.1st ed., Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
× Sarnoff, I & Corwin, S. M. (1959). Castration anxiety and the fear of death. Journal of Personality, 27 (3), 374.
× Williams, Gibbs A. Demystifying Meaning Coincidences (Synchronicities): Evolving Self, the Personal Unconscious, and
the Creative Process. Plymouth: Jason Aronson, 2010.
Electronic Sources
× “Arong, Ioannes.” Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/ioannes.arong.
× Arong, Ioannes. “Gabii sa Pebrero 14.” Kabisdak, 14 Feb. 2013, https://balaybalakasoy.blogspot.com/search?q=gabii+sa+pebrero
× “Bandillo, Vicente Vivencio.” SunStar Cebu. 21 May 2018,
https://www.pressreader.com/philippines/sunstarcebu/20180521/281496456941973.
× Bandillo, Vicente Vivencio. “Ang Pagmahay Ko.” Kabisdak, 4 Nov. 2011, https://balaybalakasoy.blogspot.com/2011/11/ang-
pagmahay-ko.html?m=1
× Bandillo, Vicente Vivencio. “Ikog sa Kometa.” Kabisdak, 6 Sep. 2011, https://balaybalakasoy.blogspot.com/2011/09/ikog-sa-
kometa.html?m=1
× Bandillo, Vicente Vivencio. “Sans Hier ni Lendemain.” Kabisdak, 11 May. 2015, https://balaybalakasoy.blogspot.com/2015/05/sans-
hier-ni-lendemain.html?m=1
× “Mojares, Resil.” Cebuano Studies Center, 20 Apr. 2011, https://www.cebuanostudiescenter.com/dr-resil-mojares/. Accessed 15
June 2018.
× Durado, Adonis. “Gurang Blues.” Kabisdak, 29 May. 2008, https://balaybalakasoy.blogspot.com/2008/05/gurang-blues_29.html?m
× “Durado, Adonis.” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adonis_Durado.
× “Khalid, Omar.” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richel_Dorotan.
× Freud, Sigmund. 2010. Freud Complete Works. trans. Ivan Smith. 3041-3053. PDF file.
× Gabriel, Y. 1983. Discontents and illusions: The inevitable costs of civilization. Group Analysis, 16(2): 130-144. PDF file.
× Gabriel Y. (2015) Identity, choice and consumer freedom – the new opiates: A psychoanalytic interrogation. Marketing
Theory. 15: 25-30. PDF file.
× Il’inykh S.A., "Masculinity and femininity: interpretation in terms of the gender theory". Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij
žurnal (International Research Journal), 11 Nov. 2012, Research-JournalOrg, DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017.
× Johnson, Joy, and Robin Repta. “Sex and Gender Beyond the Binaries.” Designing and Conducting Gender, Sex, & Health
Research, edited by John Oliffe and Lorraine Greaves, SAGE Books, 2012, p. 19, DOI: 10.4135/9781452230610.n2
× Johnson, M. (2010). “Just Getting Off”: The Inseparability of Ejaculation and Hegemonic Masculinity. Journal of Men’s Studies,
18(3), 238-248. PDF file.
× Khalid, Omar. “Erotika #6.” Kabisdak, 7 Aug. 2017, https://balaybalakasoy.blogspot.com/search?q=erotika
× Khalid, Omar. “Kon Ako ang Mopangga.” Kabisdak, 10 Jul. 2015, https://balaybalakasoy.blogspot.com/2015/07/kon-ako-ang-
mopangga.html
× “Lagunda, Kevin.” Wikipedia. https://ceb.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kevin_Lagunda
× Lagunda, Kevin. “Gugma = Verb.” Kabisdak, 27 Aug. 2008, https://balaybalakasoy.blogspot.com/2008/08/gugma-verb.html?m=1
× Lagunda, Kevin. “Kinahanglan Modag-om ka Aron Ko Makapahiyom.” Kabisdak, 21 Oct. 2016,
https://balaybalakasoy.blogspot.com/2016/10/kinahanglan-modag-om-ka-aron-ko.html?m=1
× Noam, Gil; Hauser, Stuart; Santostefano; Sebastiano; Garrison, William; Jacobson, Alan;
× Powers, Sally; Mead, Merrill. (Feb. 1984). “Ego Development and Psychology: A Study of Hospitalized Adolescents”. Child
Development. Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Society for Research in Child Development. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.
1984. tb00283.x.
× Valeros, Maria Eleanor. “Pasumbingay.” Philstar global, 5 Sep. 2010, www.philstar.com/cebu-
lifestyle/2010/09/05/608964/pasumbingay/.