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Dolph Alphonse L. Verallo MASCULINE
AB – LIT 4
Hannah Marie Aranas IN CEBUANO
Cindy Velasquez POETRY
Philippine society is very much in line with
macho culture, and this has bred a myriad of
negative stereotypes about Filipino men.

Our knowledge of this “macho” aspect of the

male identity has been portrayed in a negative
manner, mostly in romantic movies and
television shows where we see movie plots
usually showcasing male protagonists who have
problems with alcoholism, gambling, drugs, and
Statement of the Problem
This study aimed to analyze the representations of masculine
gender identity in selected Cebuano poetry written by male
Cebuano poets and members of the Bathalan-ong Anak sa
Dagang or BATHALAD writers’ group using psychoanalytical,
cultural, and gender criticism.

Specifically, this study aimed to do the following:

1. explore the manifestations of desire in the selected poems;
2. examine the functions of desire in male gender identity
formation and practice.
The study may be used as reference for
classroom discussions on understanding the
male psyche and the mechanisms of patriarchy.

Insights from the study may guide Cebuano

poets in creating imagery, symbolisms, and
metaphors relating to desire and masculinity.

This study will shed light unto those who have

either read or just begun reading Cebuano
poetry with how desire plays in the lives and
identities of men.
Research Methodology
This study used 10 selected poems that were published
during 2008-2017 and retrieved from Kabisdak.

Freud’s and Lacan’s psychoanalysis were utilized in

examining how desire is structured, how it takes hold on a
person, and the search for the male identity.

Reuben Cañete’s Masculinity, Media and their Publics in the

Philippines: Selected Essays and Khael Quinain’s From
Person to Father: A Grounded Theory of Male Gender
Identity were used to look into the cultural and gender
Categories of Desire
Desire for Pleasure
Pleasure presents itself as a coping mechanism that helps
the persona to alleviate a sense of loss.
Desire for Possession
Desire is formed from wanting to be with the object of desire
to fully possessing them out of the fear of having their
masculinity questioned or doubted.
Desire as Longing
Acts as a motivating force to help people achieve their goals,
but can also be torturing that hinders the persona from
moving forward.
Desire as a Destructive Force
Desire can also be destructive if not being held under
control, and is either harmful not only to the persona, but
also to the object of desire.
Masculine Identities
The Assertive Male
This is one of the most common of the identities and
found in almost all of the poems.
The personas assert themselves and take control of the
object of desire’s decisions and choices.

The Protector/Provider Male

This identity is related to being the provider, as well as
being concerned about the safety and welfare.
Furthermore, this identity connotes that a man has the
capability to be responsible.

The Logical Male

This identity does not conform or lacks the ideal qualities
of a masculine man, but rather, looks at the situation and
assesses whether it will be beneficial for them or not.
Masculinity concerns the cultural and societal standards
of how men present themselves.

Men will have to subscribe to the ideal masculinity, or

else their identity as a man comes into question.

Most of personas possess an assertive characteristic,

and desire to be with another person to satiate their
desire for reassurance in their identities because they
need this validation.
The poems may be seen as the struggles of men to
overcome the fear of emasculation, effeminacy, and
also, losing a place in society.

There are various forms of desire as there are various

masculine identities.

The “ideal masculinity” is really fragile, as opposed to

how society and culture portray it as unyielding and

Each of the poet’s work illustrates their different

experiences and struggles in life in regards to dealing
with lack and addressing their desires.
A study that utilizes other frameworks, such as existentialism and
Roland Barthes’ views on desire, be used in analyzing desire in
Cebuano poetry.

A study that compares and contrasts the manifestations of desire as

presented by female writers from the group WILA (Women in Literary
Arts), and local male writers from BATHALAD.

A study that focuses on the gay perspective of desire while using

Cebuano fiction, especially Libulan, the Cebuano queer anthology.
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