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DARK AGES IN EUROPE

When ancient Greece fell into decline,

mathematical progress stagnated as

Europe fell under the shadow of the Dark

Ages. But in the East, mathematics would

reach new heights.

MARCUS DU SAUTOY VISITS CHINA

• Explores how mathematics helped build Imperial

China.

• The ancient Chinese fascination with patterns in

numbers and the development of an early version

of Sudoku; and their belief in the mystical powers

of numbers, which still exists today.

• Ancient Chinese work on equations.

MARCUS DU SAUTOY VISITS INDIA

• He discovers how the symbol for the number zero was

invented - one of the great landmarks in the

development of mathematics.

• He also examines Indian mathematicians’

understanding of the new concepts of infinity and

negative numbers, and their invention of trigonometry.

MARCUS DU SAUTOY VISITS THE MIDDLE EAST

• Looking at the invention of the new language of

algebra and the evolution of a solution to cubic

equations.

• Examines mathematical developments in the

Middle East.

ENDING JOURNEY OF MARCUS

DU SAUTOY IN ITALY

• He examines the spread of Eastern

knowledge to the West through

mathematicians such as Leonardo

Fibonacci, creator of the Fibonacci

Sequence.

GREAT WALL OF CHINA

• Stretches for thousands of miles

• Nearly 2,000 years in the making, this vast,

defensive wall was begun in 220BC to protect

China's growing empire

• An amazing feat of engineering built over rough and

high countryside

ANCIENT CHINESE

• Made calculations about distances, angles of elevation and

amounts of material.

• When a mathematician wanted to do a sum, he would use small

bamboo rods.

• Believed on the mystical power of numbers (Odd numbers are

seen as male, even numbers, female.)

• Drawn to patterns in numbers, developing their own rather early

version of sudoku. It was called the magic square.

ANCIENT CHINESE

• Geometric Progression

• The mathematical advisors decided to base the harem on a mathematical

idea.

• A series of numbers in which you get from one number to the

next by multiplying the same number each time - in this case,

three.

• It was a vast and growing empire with a strict legal code,

widespread taxation and a standardized system of weights,

measures and money.

• Mathematical textbook

• written in around 200BC - the Nine Chapters

• compilation of 246 problems in practical areas such as trade,

payment of wages and taxes. went on to apply similar

methods to larger and larger numbers of unknowns, using it

to solve increasingly complicated equations.

• Carl Friedrich Gauss

• while analyzing a rock called Pallas in the asteroid belt he

rediscovered this method which had been formulated in ancient

China centuries earlier.

Qin Jiushao

• The most important mathematician during the golden age of

Chinese Math.

• He was a fantastically corrupt imperial administrator who

crisscrossed China, lurching from one post to another.

• He was reputedly described as violent as a tiger or a wolf and as

poisonous as a scorpion or a viper so, not surprisingly, he made

a fierce warrior.

• He also found a way of solving cubic equations, and this is how

it worked.

• He used his techniques to solve an equation involving numbers

up to the power of ten.

INDIA

• Their first great mathematical gift lay in the world of

number.

• Had discovered the mathematical benefits of the decimal

place-value system and were using it by the middle of the

3rd century AD.

• Indian System of Counting:

• rank as one of the greatest intellectual innovations of

all time, developing into the closest thing we could call

a universal language.

India

• Transformed zero from a mere placeholder into a number that

made sense in its own right - a number for calculation, for

investigation.

• Used the word for the philosophical idea of the void, shunya, to

represent the new mathematical term "zero".

Brahmagupta

• brilliant Indian mathematician in the 7th century proved some

of the essential properties of zero

• His rules about calculating with zero are taught in schools all

over the world to this day.

ISLAMIC EMPIRE

• Began to spread in the 7th century across the Middle East.

• At the heart of this empire lay a vibrant intellectual culture.

• House of Wisdom

• Great library and Centre of learning was established in Baghdad

• Tts teaching spread throughout the Islamic empire, reaching schools like this one in

Fez.

• The scholars of this weren't content simply with translating other people's

mathematics.

• They wanted to create a mathematics of their own, to push the subject forward.

• The Muslim scholars collected and translated many ancient texts, effectively saving

them for posterity.

Muhammad Al-Khwarizmi

• A Persian scholar and the director of the House of Wisdom

in Baghdad

• was an exceptional mathematician who was responsible for

introducing two key mathematical concepts to the West.

• recognized the incredible potential that the Hindu numerals

had to revolutionize mathematics and science.

Muhammad Al-Khwarizmi

• Was to create a whole new mathematical language and was called

Algebra (was named after the title of his book Al-jabr W'al-muqabala,

or Calculation By Restoration Or Reduction.)

• He developed systematic ways to be able to analyze problems so that

the solutions would work whatever the numbers that you took.

• His great breakthrough came when he applied algebra to quadratic

equations - that is equations including numbers to the power of two.

Omar Khayyam

• was an 11th-century Persian mathematician who took up the

challenge of cracking the problem of the cubic.

• he travelled widely across the Middle East, calculating as he went.

• he was famous for another, very different, reason. He was a

celebrated poet, author of the great epic poem the Rubaiyat.

• His major mathematical work was devoted to finding the general

method to solve all cubic equations.

13TH CENTURY

Led by Italy, Europe was starting to explore and trade with the East.

With that contact came the spread of Eastern knowledge to the West.

Leonardo of Pisa

• The son of a customs official that become Europe's first great

medieval mathematician.

• He travelled around North Africa with his father, where he learnt

about the developments of Arabic mathematics and especially the

benefits of the Hindu-Arabic numerals.

• Better known as Fibonacci, and in his Book Of Calculating,

Fibonacci

• Promoted the new number system, demonstrating how simple it

was compared to the Roman numerals that were in use across

Europe.

• Calculations were far easier, a fact that had huge consequences for

anyone dealing with numbers - pretty much everyone, from

mathematicians to merchants.

• Today, it is best known for the discovery of some numbers, now

called the Fibonacci sequence, that arose when he was trying to

solve a riddle about the mating habits of rabbits.

Tartaglia

• A scholar who prove everyone wrong that finding a general

method to solve all cubic equations was impossible.

• At the age of 12, he'd been slashed across the face with a

sabre by a rampaging French army.

• Was the nickname he'd been given as a child and means

"the stammered".

• Lost himself in mathematics, and it wasn't long before he'd

found the formula to solve one type of cubic equation.

Fior

• a young Italian who was boasting that he too held the

secret formula for solving cubic equations.

Cardano

• a mathematician in Milan who became so desperate to

find the solution for solving cubic equations that he

persuaded a reluctant Tartaglia to reveal the secret, but on

one condition - that he keep the secret and never publish.

Cardano

• couldn't deny his student his just rewards, and he broke

his vow of secrecy, publishing Tartaglia's work together

with Ferrari's brilliant solution of the quartic.

Ferrari

• The student of Cardano

• as he got to grips with Tartaglia's work, he realized that he

could use it to solve the more complicated quartic

equation, an amazing achievement.

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