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AR 2202 - HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE –

III
AIM:
To inform about the development of architecture in the western
world through the evolution of Christianity as a religion and the
cultural and contextual determinants that produced that architecture.

OBJECTIVE:
• To understanding Church architecture as evolving within specific
cultural contexts including aspects of society, religion, politics and
climate.

• To gain knowledge of the development of architectural form with


reference to technology style and character in the western world
through the evolution of the church from early Christian times up to
the renaissance period.
•BIRTH AND SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY

•TRANSFORMATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE

•EARLY CHRISTIAN WORSHIP AND BURIAL.

CHURCH PLANNING –

BASILICAN CONCEPT:

• St. Clement, Rome;

• St. Peters Rome, -

• CENTRALIZED PLAN CONCEPT:

• S, Vitale, Ravenna;

• S. Hagia Sophia, Constantinople;

•St. Marks, Venice.


EARLY CHRISTIAN
&
BYZANTINE330 AD - 1453
BIRTH AND SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY
•Christianity found its birth in the city of Bethlehem. Until the birth of
Christianity the universal religion in all civilizations was based on pagan beliefs
and the worship of nature.
•Christianity began in and around the region of Jerusalem and Palestine
spreading to the Roman Empire around the 3rd c. AD
•Christianity spread chiefly among the underprivileged in those commercial
centers visited by Jewish traders.
•By the early 2nd c. AD its adherents were found in all parts of the society
•By the 3rd c. AD it had become numerous enough to be a threat in the Roman
Empire during the period of Diocletian
•The most significant happening, which led to the spread of Christianity, was the
role of Constantine’s decision to recognize Christianity as a religion equal to all
others in 313 AD
•Choosing to rule primarily from Constantinople (Byzantium) in the eastern
empire in 324 AD
•Spread of Christianity:
•Constantine’s decision to recognize Christianity & ruling from the East
•Revival by Charlemagne under the name of the Holy Empire by Pope Leo III
in 800
•Growing prestige of the S Peter in the Christian West- a prestige confirmed by
the growing wealth and temporal power filling the vacuum left by the Roman
Empire
•The only threat for the spread was from the Persians on the East despite the
existence of semi independent Christian state of Armenia
•Expansion of the Byzantine empire to cover Northern Africa, southern Spain
and Italy
•They were affected badly due to the Arab attacks leading to the loss of
Damascus, Syria, Jerusalem, N.Africa, Armenia & Asia Minor, even Spain by
the 7th c.AD
•Thus the Byzantine empire fell to the Turks
•But this was not the end for the Orthodox church which survived through the
Turkish occupation
•Also survived in Russia
•The coronation of Charlemagne as the Holy Roman Emperor in 800 marked
the beginning of the new era with the Romanesque period in Europe
BIRTH AND SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY
•Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine empire. The empire
emerged gradually after AD 330, when Constantine moved the capital of the
Roman empire to Byzantium, which was later renamed Constantinople and is now
Istanbul.

•a style emerged which was influenced more by the architecture of the near east,
and used the Greek cross plan for the church architecture which mostly stands
today.

• Brick replaced stone,

• classical orders were used more freely,

• mosaics replaced carved decoration, and

• complex domes were erected.


EVOLUTION OF CHURCH FORMS
The invention of the Christian church was achieved by a process of assimilating and
rejecting various precedents, such as the
•Greek temple,
•Roman public building,
•Private Roman house, and the
•Synagogue.
Early Christian Architecture consisted of various building typologies in:
•Churches
•Commemorative structures
•Covered cemeteries
•Baptisteries
Evolution:
•The 1st Christians had the Synagogue as a place of worship
•When the Jews severed their ties with the Christians, there was a need for a large space
for prayer, and the Liturgy of the Eucharist
•By the 3rd c. purpose built churches and adaptations of existing buildings
•There were requirements for spaces for activities such as the Eucharist, Baptism
•Thus forms were chosen which was suitable without much of modification
•Thus the Basilica was chosen
PARTS OF A TYPICAL CHURCH

1. Narthex.(covered porch) 6. Crossing.


2. Façade towers. 7. Altar.
3. Nave. 8. Apse.
4. Aisles. 9. Ambulatory.
5. Transept. 10. Radiating chapels.
PARTS OF A TYPICAL CHURCH

TYPICAL LAYOUT IN TYPICAL LAYOUT IN TYPICAL LAYOUT IN A


EASTERN ORTHODOX CATHOLIC AND PROTESTANT “FREE CHURCH”
CHURCHES LITHURGICAL CHURCHES BAPTIST CHURCH
OF WEST
EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE-CHURCH FORMS
Early Christian Architecture:
1. BASILICAL CHURCH developed from Roman secular basilica or axial,
type, represented by the basilica at the Holy Sepulchre
2. CENTRALISED type from Roman tombs. These were nearly always
vaulted, with a central dome
The central space was sometimes surrounded by a very thick wall, in which
deep recesses, to the interior, were formed, as at the noble church of St
George, Salonica Vaulted aisle, as at St Costanza, Rome (4th century)
Annexes were thrown out from the central space in such a way as to form a
cross, in which these additions helped to counterpoise the central vault, as at
the mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna (5th century).
The most famous church of this type was that of the Holy Apostles,
Constantinople. Vaults appear to have been early applied to the basilican type
of plan; for instance, at St Irene, Constantinople (6th century), the long body
of the church is covered by two domes.
Basilical plan modified for liturgical requirements; congregation and clergy
segregated in nave and aisles vs. transept and apse. Different variants in East
and West.
EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE-CHURCH FORMS
BASILICAN CHURCH FORM
•Developed from Roman secular basilica or
axial, type, represented by the basilica at the
Holy Sepulcher
•These were timber roofed rectangular halls with
colonnaded central space with aisles and galleries
above
•The main space was higher than the aisles giving
options of clerestory lighting and 1 or more apses
for legal transactions
•This form could be varied in size and form
•The only limitation was the span of the central
space.
•Seating could be provided in the apse for the
clergy as it had been for the magistrate
•The altar could be placed in the front there had
been a small altar for libations
•An atrium was added in front of the temple
(typical of the roman house) with a fountain at the
center
•In the interiors a open screen separated the nave
from the sanctuary known as the Iconostasis
•This was surmounted by a canopy known as the
Baldachino or the Ciborium ICONOSTASIS BALDACHINO
EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE-CHURCH FORMS
CENTRALISED CHURCH FORM
•The possible prototypes for this form could be the circular temple
(Pantheon) and the centralized audience hall or garden pavilion
(Minerva Medica) which was typical of a roman palace
•This form varied from a completely circular form to a more complex
lobed (tetraconch or 4 lobed) form set within a square or an octagon
•These were nearly always vaulted, with a central dome
•The central space was sometimes surrounded by a very thick wall, in
which deep recesses, to the interior, were formed, as at the noble church
of St George, Salonica Vaulted aisle, as at San Costanza, Rome (4th
century)
•Annexes were thrown out from the central space in such a way as to
form a cross, in which these additions helped to counterpoise the central
vault, as at the mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna (5th century).
•The most famous church of this type was that of the Holy Apostles,
Constantinople.
•A simple circular, octagonal or centralised form was chosen for the
Baptistery
•In the west the aisle continued around the apse forming an ambulatory
•In addition to all these the cross shaped plan was also adopted with 4
arms leading to the transept and the crossing usually surmounted by a
dome
•There are 2 types of cross plans in churches
•The one with equal arms referred to as the Greek cross and the other
known as the Roman cross
EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE-CHURCH FORMS
BASILICAL PLAN CHURCHES –
LATERAN BASILICA ROME
•Constantine's 1st church commission
•Basilica with a wide nave terminating in an apse
•Double aisles at each side
•The inner aisles were taller than the outer
•Shallow projecting wings which cut the ends of the outer aisles short
•Serving purpose similar to that of modern sacristies
•Tall nave colonnade carrying horizontal entablatures
•Lower aisles carry arcades
•No galleries
•Gilt ceilings, silver altars ,
•Coloured marble columns, Wall facings
•Exterior plain
in contrast to
the
•richly
decorated
interiors
EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE-CHURCH FORMS
BASILICAL PLAN CHURCHES – 4th c.
CHURCH OF HOLY SEPULCHRE, JERUSALEM
•Constantines most important church foundation in the East
•Consisted of: ANASTHASIS
•ANASTHASIS (Greek: Resurrection ) ROTUNDA
ROTUNDA
•Porticoed court
•Rock of Calvary PORTICOED COURT
•Martyrium basilica
•Serves as a cathedral CALVARY
•Double aisles on each side
•Galleries MARTYRIUM BASILICA
•The altar is encircled by 12 columns
•Set tightly against the walls of the apse
•Outer atrium
EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE-CHURCH FORMS
BASILICAL PLAN CHURCHES – 6th c.
CHURCH OF NATIVITY, BETHLEHEM
Present Basilica
Teriminates in a triconch arrangement
Central apse
2 similar transept arms
Original Basilica
Octagon with a conical roof in place
of the triconch
In the center was the Grotto of Nativity
EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE-CHURCH FORMS
BASILICAL PLAN CHURCHES – 4th c.
BASILICA OF S PETERS
•The present church was rebuilt on a totally different design
•On an enlarged scale
•Church:
•Constructed over a cemetery
•Extended over an earlier circus
•CIBORIUM like canopy had
barley sugar twisted columns
•These columns are now set into great piers
that carry Michelangelo's dome
•Dome:Raised over S Peters tomb
•A broad platform – BEMA,
extended to each side of the dome
•Apse projected westwards
•Basilica- 210’ x 295’
•Double aisles
•22 huge antique columns support nave walls
•22 shorter columns divide aisles from aisles
EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE-CHURCH FORMS
BASILICAL PLAN CHURCHES – 4th c.
CHURCH OF HOLY APOSTLES CONSTANTINOPLE

BASILICAL PLAN CHURCHES – 4th c.


CEMETERY OF S AGNESE

Cross shapes
4 arms meet in a crossing space
Symbolic stele erected to represent the apostles
Large court around