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NR V2X Communication

Ji Min Lee
Mobile Communications Lab
Chung-Ang University

January, 3 2019
V2X Communication
 V2X – Vehicle to Everything communication
• V2X includes
• V2V – Vehicle to Vehicle
• V2I – Vehicle to Infrastructure
• V2N – Vehicle to Nomadic Device

 Autonomous driving technology


• Low latency and high reliability required
• Short symbol length at mmWave band

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V2X Initial Access
• MmWave V2X Initial Access
• Rx vehicle cannot distinguish BS sync signal
from vehicle sync signal of other vehicles

• New synchronization signal design


 NR SS/PBCH block  V SS block
 Rx vehicle can determine BS sync signal
 Lower overhead than NR SS/PBCH block

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V SS Block
•1. Only 2 time symbols are used
• Smaller overhead than NR SS/PBCH block
• PSS contains and BID
• SSS contains

where

VID( ) �{ 0,1,...,335}
1

VID( 2) �{ 0,1, 2}

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NR PSS vs V(Vehicular) PSS
• NR PSS time domain signal : p ci ( n ) = p c0 ( n ) e - j 2p ci Dc / N
( 2)
 ci : N ID = 0,1,2
 p c0 ( n ) : NR PSS with N ID
( 2)
=0
 D = 43 : Cell ID step size
c


n = 0,1,..., N - 1 N = 127 : signal length
• V PSS time domain signal : x ci n = p ci n
( ) → time domain conjugation
*
b0 ( ) ( )

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V PSS with Beam ID
( )
*
• V PSS time domain signal : xbc0i ( n ) = p ci ( n )
• xbij ( n ) = xb0i (n - b j Db ) → time domain circular shifting
c c

 b j : Beam ID b j = 0,1,..., B B : the number of Tx beam directions


 D =�
N / B �: Beam ID step size
b

4 Db = 4 �
127 / 16 �= 28

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V PSS time domain signal vector notation
T
({
W)
H
• V PSS time domain signal : x = Lb j Db R ci ci Dc
�P0 P-1 L P-( N -1) �
{ { Phase
bj �
1 4 4 44 2 4 4 4 43�
Circular IDFT
Rotation frequency NR PSS signal
shift matrix
with time conjugation
 Lb D = Li , j = d i , j +b D : NxN Circular shift matrix 0
� 0 0 1 0�
j b j b

0 0 0 0 1�
 For example, the 5x5 shift matrix � �
 For Beam ID L2 = �
1 0 0 0 0�
� �
0
� 1 0 0 0�

0
� 0 1 0 0�

( )
 R ci Dc = diag e j 2p 0�( ci Dc )/ N , e j 2p 1�( ci Dc )/ N , L , e j 2p ( N -1) �( ci Dc )/ N : Phase rotation matrix
 For Cell ID

 Complex conjugation property



g [ n ] = x* [ n ] DFT
��� � G[ k ] = X * �
�-k N

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V SS Block transmission
•1. NR SS burst set ends within 5ms
• V SS burst set is transmitted after NR SS burst to avoid interference with NR
Synchronization signal

 : Maximum beam number of the vehicle

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Detection Scenarios
• Sync scenario • Async scenario
 When the BS and all vehicles are  When the BS and all vehicles are far
very close apart
 All vehicles are synchronized to the  It is meaningless to synchronize
BS for signal transmission because they are far apart
 Assuming that all signals to the  Assuming that all signals to the
receiving vehicle arrive at the same receiving vehicle arrive at the
time different time

t
t2 t1
t t4
t
t t3

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Synchronized Scenario Condition
• Synchronized scenario
 Conditions without ambiguity in the position of the peak according to the beam of V-
PSS
 Sync condition : V-PSS maximum delay < half interval between peaks according to
beam ID
 Half interval = 1 1 � 127 / B �
� �
2 Df number
 B : The maximum 127 of beams

 : Beam ID step size


�127 / B �
 For example, → half interval
Df = 240kHz, B = 16 �114.8ns
 V-PSS maximum delay = sync cell diameter boundary / speed of light
 For example,
Df =cell
→ maximum sync 240kHz, B = 16
diameter
�114.8ns �c(speed of light) �34.42m

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Maximum sync cell diameter table

B (The maximum Maximum sync cell B (The maximum Maximum sync cell
number of beam ID) diameter [meter] number of beam ID) diameter [meter]
1
1 1249
1249 1
1 625
625
2
2 620
620 2
2 310
310
4 305 4 152
4 305 4 152
8 148 8 74
8 148 8 74
16 69 16 34
16 69 16 34
32 30 32 15
32 30 32 15
64 10 64 5
64 10 64 5
• Assume that RF chain number is maximum
= Assume that all V-PSS are transmitted in one symbol

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Sync & Async Detection Process
Sync Scenario
1. Find NR PSS & SSS & DMRS & PBCH
2. Jump to V-PSS symbol position
a. To the correct V-PSS symbols position
3. Detect VID2 and BID from V-PSS
a. Decimate received signal to 127 samples using Lagrange interpolation
b. Detect BID using correlation peak position in cyclic correlation results
4. Detect VID1 from V-SSS
 V-SSS is exactly same as NR-SSS, but the position of V-SSS is next to V-PSS

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Sync & Async Detection Process
Async Scenario 1 Async Scenario 2
1. Find NR PSS & SSS & DMRS & PBCH 1. Detect VID2 and BID from V-PSS
without any prior information
2. Jump to around V-SSB burst position
a. Decimate all received signal to
a. From the previous 1 symbol of the
have 127 samples per 1 symbol
expected V-SSB burst position to
the next 1 symbol b. Detect BID through the position of
the different cover codes
3. Detect VID2 and BID from V-PSS
2. Detect VID1 from V-SSS
a. Decimate a symbol at a rate of 127
samples
b. Detect BID through the different
position of the cover codes
4. Detect VID1 from V-SSS

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Lagrange Interpolation
• Received OFDM symbol
Np
( 2)
y j ( t ) = �a l Grx ,l Gtx ,l xVVID,OFDM
, bV
( t ) + w( t )
l =1

1
0 �t <
Df

• Sampled with Tc =
1 ,
Df �L

Np
( 2)
y j [ n ] = y j ( nTc ) = �a l Grx ,l Gtx ,l xVVID,OFDM
, bV
[ n] + w [ n] : only constants are
l =1 multiplied to the V PSS signal
n = 0,1..., L - 1

• However, sampling period at the receiver may differ from


Tc

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Lagrange Interpolation
• � 1 �samples with Ts L samples with Tc
� �
Df �
� Ts �

• Lagrange interpolation
n
f n -1 ( x ) = �Li ( x ) f ( xi )
i =1
n x - xj
Li ( x ) = �
j =1 xi - x j
j �i
• n-1 interpolation with n samples
• Resulting a signal with sample length L
• With higher the n , better the result of interpolation

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Async scenario – cover code
• BID cannot be estimated with peak locations
• To compensate the effect of the timing shift, use cover code
• M-sequence is multiplied to V-PSS
• Find correct timing with same m-sequence used

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Initial Access Flowchart

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Simulation Environment
• 1 BS and 2 Tx Vehicles
• 1 Rx Vehicle

• The number of Tx antennas : 16


• The number of Rx antennas : 8
• Lagrange order : 8
• Lagrange oversampling factor : 2
→ 254 samples
• Subcarrier spacing : 240kHz

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Simulation Results (Sync / 1 RF chain)

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Simulation Results (Sync / 2 RF chain)

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Simulation Results (Async / 2 RF chain)

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