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# BASIC ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING
EE20/EE21
Basic Concepts and Fundamental Laws
A. Electrical Unit
BASE UNITS in S. I.

## Base Quantity Unit Symbol

Length meter m
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Thermodynamic Temperature kelvin K
Electric Current ampere A
Amount of Substance mole mol
Luminous Intensity candela cd
S.I. Unit Prefixes

## Name Factor Symbol Name Factor Symbol

yotta x 1024 Y yocto x 10-24 y
zetta x 1021 Z zepto x 10-21 z
exa x 1018 E atto x 10-18 a
peta x 1015 P femto x 10-15 f
tera x 1012 T pico x 10-12 p
giga x 109 G nano x 10-9 n
mega x 106 M micro x 10-6 µ
kilo x 103 k milli x 10-3 m
hecto x 102 h centi x 10-2 c
deka x 101 da deci x 10-1 d
Scientific Notation
• It is the shifting of the decimal point either to the left or to the right of the
given number until there is only one significant digit to the left of the
decimal point and then multiplying the number with the appropriate power
of 10 to retain its original value.
• A way of expressing a number in terms of the power of 10.
Example: 58,000 m = 5.8 x 104 m
Engineering Notation
• It is an exponential format of specifying numbers in which the powers of 10
are limited to the multiples of three so that it corresponds to an S.I. prefix.
• It is the application of decimal prefixes and their abbreviations to simplify
language when dealing with very small or very large units.
Example: 58,000 m = 58 km
Definition of terms and Linear Electric Circuits

## Electric Charge (expressed in Coulomb)

• The quantity of electric energy stored in battery, capacitors,
elementary particles or any insulated materials.
• Q (constant quantity)
• q (instantaneous quantity)
instantaneous - a varying quantity at a particular instant.
1 Coulomb = 6.25 x 1018 electrons, e-
1 electron = 1.602 x 10-19 coulomb
Electric Current

## • A net flow of positive or negative charges that passes to a given point at a

specified period of time.
• A rate of transfer of electricity from one point to another.
• I or i
I=Q/t (constant quantity)
I = dq / dt (instantaneous quantity)
• 1 Ampere = 1 coulomb / sec
where:
I = Current (Amperes) A
Q = Charge (Coulomb) C
t = Time (second) s
Voltage or Potential Difference

## • It is the potential energy difference that exists between two points.

• It is the amount of work done per unit charge.
V=W/Q
where:
V = voltage (volts) V
W = work or energy (Joules) J
Q = Charge (Coulomb) C
+ V -

The charge will not move unless you apply the potential difference

+ V - + V -
Voltage Drop Voltage Rise
• Network Analysis
Defined as the quantitative or mathematical analysis of voltage
and current behavior when electrical devices are connected at least one
closed path.

• Network
Defined as an interconnection of electrical elements in which
there may or may not be at least one closed path.

• Circuit
Defined as an interconnection of electrical elements in which
there is at least one closed path in which current may flow.
Electrical Components

1. Active Elements
• Elements capable of supplying energy.
• Components which are capable of controlling voltages to produce gain and
switching action in a circuit.
a. Voltage Source
• Independent voltage source
• Dependent / Controlled sources
b. Current Sources
• Independent Current source
• Dependent / Controlled sources
Independent Sources

+
_
V I

## • Capable of delivering voltage or current regardless of the network

connection.
Dependent Sources

+
-

## Supplies voltage or current controlled by a variable connected in some

other part of the network.
2. Passive Elements
• Elements which are capable of absorbing energy.
• Elements which are capable of storing energy but does not supply
energy.

## a. Resistor - absorbs energy

b. Inductor - stores energy
c. capacitor - stores energy
Resistor
• Its function is to limit the amount of current or divide the voltage in a
circuit.
• It is also used to convert electrical energy into another form of energy
like heat energy.
• Unit: Ohm (Ω)
Capacitor
• Its basic function is to concentrate the electric field of voltage applied
across the dielectric. A capacitor is constructed of two conductor
plates separated by an insulator (dielectric).
Inductor
• Its main function is to concentrate the magnetic field of electric
current in a coil.
• An induced voltage is generated when the current changes its value
or direction.
• Unit: Henry (H)
Resistance of Electrical Conductors
• Resistance
• The property of a material or circuit elements to oppose the flow of
electrons.
Factors affecting the resistance of a conductor:
1. Length
2. Cross-sectional area
3. Nature of the material
4. Temperature
Conductor

RL/A
R=L
A
but V = A L
L = V / A; A = V / L
R =  V =  L2
A2 V
where:
 = resistivity or specific resistance of a given material at a
certain
temperature. (Ω-m)
L = length (m)
A = cross-sectional area (m2)
V = volume (m3)
Resistivity of Copper at 200C

## • Standard Annealed Copper

 = 1.7241 x 10-8 Ω – m
= 1.7241 x 10-6 Ω - cm
= 10.37 Ω - cmil / ft
• Hard - Drawn Copper
 = 1.77 x 10-8 Ω – m
= 1.77 x 10-6 Ω - cm
= 10.65 Ω - cmil / ft
• Mil (mil)
A unit of length equivalent to one thousandth of an inch.
1 mil = I x 10-3 in
• Square mil (mil2)
A cross sectional area of a square whose side is equivalent to 1 mil.
• Circular mil (cmil)
A cross sectional area of a circle whose diameter is equivalent to 1 mil.
• 1 cmil =  / 4 sq. mil
Area in cmil = D2 = D12 x 106
where:
D = Diameter in mils
D1 = Diameter in inch
Conductance
-The property of the material that allows easily the flow of current.
G = 1 / R = ___1___
L/A

G=1/xA/L

G= A/L
• where:
• G = Conductance in mho or Siemens
• (S)
• = conductivity constant in S / m
Percent Conductivity
• % conductivity = .  material x 100%
 annealed Cu

## • % conductivity = .  annealed Cu x 100%

 material
Effect of Temperature on resistance

R2 = R1 [ /Tx/ + T2 ]
[ /Tx/ + T1 ]
• where:
R1 = Resistance at temperature T1
R2 = Resistance at temperature T2
T1 = Initial Temperature
T2 = Final Temperature
Tx = Inferred zero resistance temperature
= Inferred absolute zero temperature
Inferred zero resistance temperature (Tx)

## • The temperature in which the material inhibits zero resistance or

super conductivity.
R2 = R1 (1 + 1 t)

• where:
1 = temperature coefficient of resistance in / ºC
t = Change in temperature
1 = 1 .
/Tx/ + T1
Resistivity Constant, Inferred zero resistance temperature and
Temperature Coefficient of resistance of some common electrical
material
Material  at 20 ºC Tx  at 20 ºC
(Ω - m)
Silver 1.64 x 10-8 243 0.0038
Copper 1.72 x 10-8 234.5 0.00393
Aluminum 2.83 x 10-8 236 0.0039
Tungsten 5.50 x 10-8 202 0.0045
Nickel 7.80 x 10-8 147 0.006
Iron 12.0 x 10-8 180 0.0055
Constantan 49.0 x 10-8 0.000008
Nichrome 110 x 10-8 6250 0.00016
Carbon -0.0005
Resistor Color Coding

## Digit Multiplier Tolerance

Color Digit Multiplier Tolerance
Black 0 x 100 -
Brown 1 x 101 -
Red 2 x 102 -
Orange 3 x 103 -
Yellow 4 x 104 -
Green 5 x 105 -
Blue 6 x 106 -
Violet 7 x 107 -
Gray 8 x 108 -
White 9 x 109 -
Gold - x 0.1 +/- 5%
Silver - x 0.01 +/- 10%
No color - -- +/- 20%
Sample Problems:
1. What are the Values of the following resistors? Tolerances?
a) Brown Red Brown Silver
• (Ans. R = 120 Ω, T = 108 Ω – 132 Ω)
b) Green Blue Black
• (Ans. R = 56 Ω, T = 44.8 Ω – 67.2 Ω)
c) Brown Gray Yellow Gold
• (Ans. R = 180,000 Ω, T = 171,000 Ω – 189,000 Ω)
d) Yellow Violet Silver Silver
• (Ans. R = 0.47 Ω, T = 0.42 Ω – 0.52 Ω)
e) Red Red Gold Gold
• (Ans. R = 2.2 Ω, T = 2.09 Ω – 2.31 Ω)
f) Brown Black Green
• (Ans. R = 1,000,000 Ω, T = 800,000 Ω – 1,200,000 Ω)

## 2. An electric conductor 1 m long with a cross sectional area of 1 mm2

has a resistance of 0.017 Ω. What is the resistance of a 50 m wire of
the same material with a cross sectional area of 0.25 mm2?
• (Ans. R2 = 3.4 Ω)
3. The Cu winding of an electric motor which has been standing for
several hours in a room at 20 ºC has a resistance of 0.20 Ω. When the
motor has been in use for some hours the resistance of the winding is
found to be 0.22 Ω. Calculate the temperature rise of the winding.
• (Ans. ∆t = 25.4 ºC)

## 4. What is the resistance of a 300 m of copper wire with a cross

sectional area of 1.5 mm2 at 40 ºC?
• (Ans. R40 ºC = 3.71 Ω)
5) A certain resistance was measured to be 30 Ω at 20 ºC and 40 Ω at
95 ºC. Find the temperature coefficient at 0 ºC and 25 ºC, and the
inferred zero resistance temperature.
• (Ans: /Tx/ = 205 ºC; 0 = 0.00488 / ºC; 25 = 0.00435 / ºC)