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c 

 
 
 
 
  
   



2 To provide the student with
pointers on how to construct
sentences with the help of
parts of speech.
‡ c  
    
  

 
2 
      
             
   
4:39 AM Training Department
austRead«!
³You can teach a student a lesson for
a day; but if you can teach him to
learn by creating curiosity, he will
continue the learning process as long
as he lives.´ ~
ClayP.Bedford
A motivating story

The story is about a soldier who was finally coming


home after having fought in Vietnam. He called Ê 
parents from Dan Francisco.
"Mom and Dad, I'm coming home, but I've a favor to ask.
I have a friend I'd like to bring home with me."
"Sure," they replied, "we'd love to meet him."
"There's something you should know the son continued,
"he was hurt pretty badly in the fighting. He stepped on a
land mine and lost an arm and a leg. He has nowhere
else to go, and I want him to come live with us.

4:39 AM Training Department


]ight Parts of Speech

Nouns

Interjections

Adjectives

0  
Mhy Learn Parts of Speech?
Mhy Learn Parts of Speech?
‡ They are the
building blocks of
]nglish grammar.
‡ It is a foundation to
improve your
writing.
4:39 AM Training Department
Mord that names

bA
Person

A Place

A Thing

An Idea
Nouns
‡ Names of persons, ‡ ] ample:
places, things, feelings, The boy on the
or ideas. red bike hit a bird with
‡ Often indicated by a rock at the end of
³noun markers´ -- a, the long road.
an, and the.
Nouns
‡ Names of persons, ‡ ] ample:
places, things, feelings, Happiness is the
or ideas. preference of every
‡ ³Noun markers´ -- a, action and is the
an, and the. tendency toward
‡ Noun endings: - kindness and
ness, -ment, -ance, - contentment.
ence, -ancy, -ency, -
ity, -ion, -ure.
Nouns
‡ Names of persons, ‡ ] ample:
places, things, feelings, The needs of the
or ideas. masses may conflict
‡ ³Noun markers´ -- a, with e pectations of
an, and the. the members of
‡ Noun endings: legislative bodies.
-ness, -ment, -ance, -
ence, -ancy, -ency, -ity, -
ion, -ure.
‡ Can be made plural
with s or es.
Nouns
‡ Names of persons, places, things, feelings, or
ideas.
‡ ³Noun markers´ -- a, an, and the.
‡ Noun endings: -ness, -ment, -ance, -ence, -
ancy, -ency, -ity, -ion, -ure.
‡ Can be made plural with s or es.
Nouns (singular and plural)
‡ x le No. 1 (Add - to the end of noun)
cup cups
student students

‡ x le No.2 consonants before ³y´


change - to and add -
city -cities party- parties lady-ladies

‡ x le No.3 vowels before ³y´


add -

boy ±boys
4:39 AM
key ±keys day -days
Training Department
Singular and plural (cont.)
‡ x le No. 4 (±f and ±fe endings)
change the - or - to v and -
life ±lives wife ±wives thief ±thieves

‡ x le No. 5 (sh, ch, , ss endings) add ±es


bush ±bushes
match ±matches
bo -bo es

‡ x le No. 6 (consonant + o) add - (vowel +o) ±s


tomato ±tomatoes radio radios

4:39 AM Training Department


Pronunciation of plurals §
‡ Group A Final - is pronounced  after voiced
sounds(ta icabs, beds, dogs, balls, years, days, boys,
trees, etc.)

‡ Group B Final ±s is pronounced /s/ after voiceless


sounds(books, cups, groups, cats, students, desks, etc.)

‡ Group C Final -  is pronounced 


after ³s´ so nds (classes, horses, bo es, faces)
after ³z´ so nds (sizes, roses, noises)
after ³sh´ so nds (dishes, bushes)
after ³ch´ so nds (matches, sandwiches)
after ³ge/dge´ so nds (pages, ages, bridges, edges)
4:39 AM Training Department
Irregular plural forms
(e ceptions)
‡ Child children
‡ Foot feet
‡ Man men
‡ Moman women
‡ Mouse mice
‡ Tooth teeth
‡ Fish fish
‡ _____ people
(is always plural) (no s)

4:39 AM Training Department


Count and noncount nouns
‡ Count nouns ‡ Non-count nouns
a book books advice, furniture, love, peace,
one book two books homework, information, food,
some books mail, music, traffic, weather,
a lot of books work, bread, cheese, coffee,
many books rice, sand, meat, milk, water,
a few books sugar, money, oil,

‡ Non-count nouns liquids materials


abstracts general
money
food
some money
a lot of money gases
much money
4:39 AM a little money Training Department
Oral Practice (count vs. non-count)

Chair Traffic Music Mork

Furniture Cars Coffee Mater

Coin Fact Library aewelry

Money Information Peace Rings

Letters Homework Advice austice

mail assignment job sugar


4:39 AM Training Department
Mork Sheet
‡ Me have 8 min to complete it.
‡ Trainer shall ask one by one from the
participants about the work sheet.
‡ Mork in pairs.( one sheet for two
participants).

4:39 AM Training Department


4:39 AM Training Department
A word that e presses action
or otherwise helps to make a
statement ³be´ verbs
&
taste
feel
sound
look
appear
become
seem
grow
remain
stay
ÿerbs
‡ The action or ³doing´ ‡ The horse ran,
words in a sentence. jumped and kicked
until it threw the rider.
ÿerbs
‡ The action or ³doing´ ‡ ] ample:
words in a sentence. She is a nice person,
‡ ³Linking verbs´ show and we are her
being. friends.
‡ Memorize the linking
verbs:
Be, am, is, are, was,
were, been, being.
ÿerbs
‡ The action or ³doing´ ‡ ] ample:
words in a sentence. ‡ Today I am on a bus,
‡ ³Linking verbs´ show and it goes past my
being. house.
‡ Change to show time ‡ Yesterday I was on a
(tense). bus, and it went past
my house.
The words that change
are verbs.
ÿerbs
‡ The action or ³doing´ ‡ Always helping verbs:
words in a sentence. Can Mill Shall May
Could Mould Should Might
‡ ³Linking verbs´ show
Must
being.
‡ Always verbs, may be
‡ Change to show time helping:
(tense). ± Have, has, had
± Do, does, did, done
‡ Complete verbs
± Be, am, is, are, was, were,
include ³helping been, being
verbs.´
ÿerbs
‡ The action or ³doing´ ‡ ] ample:
words in a sentence. They might have
‡ ³Linking verbs´ show been going to the
being. store if they could
‡ Change to show time have gotten a ride.
(tense).
‡ Complete verbs
include ³helping
verbs.´
ÿerbs
‡ The action or ³doing´ words in a
sentence.
‡ ³Linking verbs´ show being.
‡ Change to show time (tense).
‡ Complete verbs include ³helping
verbs.´
Modifies or describes a Answers these questions:
noun or pronoun.
Did you lose your address
book?

Is that a wool sweater?

aust give me five minutes.


Adjectives
‡ Describe or modify ‡ ] ample:
only nouns. A big, red dump
tr ck hit a parked
little car and the
worried driver ran
to the other side of
the busy street.
Adjectives
‡ Describe or modify only ‡ ] ample:
nouns.
The three tired teens
‡ Answer questions, tried to eat a large
³what kind?´ or pizza at two pizza
³how many?´ parlors.
‡ How many teens? three
‡ Mhat kind of teens? tired
‡ Mhat kind of pizza? large
‡ How many parlors? two
‡ Mhat kind of parlors? pizza
Adjectives
‡ Describe or modify only ‡ ] ample:
nouns.
The way to a smile
‡ Answer questions, ³what
and an appreciative
kind?´ or ³how many?´
attitude is through the
‡ The ³noun markers´ stomach.
a, an, the are always
adjectives.
Adjectives
‡ Describe or modify only ‡ ] ample:
nouns.
The long, shiny black
‡ Answer questions, ³what
limousine pulled in
kind?´ or ³how many?´
front of the huge old
‡ The ³noun markers´ a,
an, the are always mansion, and a tall,
adjectives. well-dressed older
‡ Usually ³piled up´ before gentleman got out.
nouns.
Adjectives
‡ Describe or modify only nouns. ‡ ] ample:
‡ Answer questions, ³what
kind?´ or ³how many?´ The river is deep,
‡ The ³noun markers´ a, an, the wide and cold, but the
are always adjectives. divers are brave and
‡ Usually ³piled up´ before
nouns. well-trained.
‡ May follow linking verbs Note: to test these, try
and describe the subject. putting them in front of
the noun they modify.
Adjectives
‡ Describe or modify only nouns.
‡ Answer questions, ³what kind?´ or ³how
many?´
‡ The ³noun markers´ a, an, the are always
adjectives.
‡ Usually ³piled up´ before nouns.
‡ May follow linking verbs and describe the
subject.
The prono n is a word sed in place of one or more no ns.
It may  
a person, place, thing, or idea.

 
  
anybody
each
either
none
someone, one, etc.
Pronouns
‡ Specialized words to ‡ Memorize:
take the place of I he we she they
nouns. me him us her them
‡ Often refer to people ‡ Other common
and have several pronouns:
forms.
± you, it, this, that, who,
what, someone,
everything, anyone,
and many other similar
words.
Pronouns
‡ Specialized words to take ‡ ] ample:
the place of nouns.
Her red car is faster
‡ Often refer to people and
than my old Ford, but
have several forms.
their new Honda cost
‡ May be possessive, more than ours.
showing ownership
‡ Note the form:
and working like an
I he we she they
adjective.
me him us her them
my his our hers theirs
Others: yours, its, whose
Pronouns
‡ Specialized words to take the place of
nouns.
‡ Often refer to people and have several
forms.
‡ May be possessive, showing ownership
and working like an adjective.
A     introduces a noun or pronoun
or a phrase or clause functioning in the sentence
as a noun. The word or word group that the
preposition introduces is its .

They received a postcard from Bobby telling

about his trip to Canada.


Prepositions
‡ Specialized words to ‡ The man on the bus
start prepositional with a hat on his head
phrases. looked at me and
A prepositional phrase turned toward the
is a group of words window.
describing things
which starts with a
preposition and ends
with a noun or pronoun.
Prepositions
‡ Specialized words to ‡ Memory clue:
start prepositional The rabbit went _____
phrases. the hollow log.
‡ Most prepositions are ‡ Memorize:
small, common words
indicating time, place at, from, to, on, in,
or position. into, onto, between,
under, over, against,
around, through
Prepositions
‡ Specialized words to start ‡ ] ample:
prepositional phrases.
The problem with him
‡ Most prepositions are
small, common words is that he sleeps
indicating time, place or during the day and
position.
spends most of the
‡ Some prepositions
night with his friends.
simply must be
memorized. ‡ Memorize:
of, with, for, during
Prepositions
‡ Specialized words to start prepositional
phrases.
‡ Most prepositions are small, common
words indicating time, place or position.
‡ Some prepositions simply must be
memorized.
The conjunction
a word that joins words
A conjunction is

or groups of words.

or

but
To remember all seven, you might
want to learn this acronym: FANBOYS
‡ F = for
‡ A = and
‡ N = nor
‡ B = but
‡ O = or
‡ Y = yet
‡ S = so
4:39 AM Training Department
Conjunctions
‡ Mords which ³hook´ ‡ ] ample:
words, phrases, or She and I left, but they
sentences. stayed, for aamsaid or
Memory clue: FAN BOYS. Taimoor
For But
was coming on the
And Or
Nor Yet bus, yet not on time.
So
Conjunctions
‡ Mords which ³hook ‡ ] ample:
together´ words, I ran when I saw her
phrases, or because I was happy
sentences.
since she was home.
‡ Some conjunctions
only hook clauses. ‡ Memory clue:
They include: She is cute _____ she
smiles.
when, as, if, since,
because, while, after,
although, before
Conjunctions
‡ Mords which ³hook together´ words,
phrases, or sentences.
‡ Some conjunctions only hook clauses.
Modifies or describes
a verb, an adjective, Answers the questions:
or another adverb.

He ran quickly.
She left yesterday.
Me went there.

It was too hot! To what degree or how much


Interrogative
Adverbs How did you break
introduce questions your leg?

How often do
you run?
Mhere did you put
the mouse trap?
Adverbs
‡ Describe verbs, ‡ She quickly ran to her
adjectives, or other e tremely tired friend
adverbs. and gave him a very
big hug.
Adverbs
‡ Describe verbs, ‡ Soon the very able
adjectives, or other pilot confidently flew
adverbs. west, and thus he
‡ Answer the adverb almost crashed.
questions: How? Mhen? soon
Mhen? Mhere? Mhy? Mhere? west
Under what How? very,confidently
conditions? Mhy? thus
Mhat conditions? almost
Adverbs
‡ Describe verbs, ‡ ] ample:
adjectives, or other
adverbs.
The e tremely hungry
‡ Answer the adverb animal howled eerily in
questions: How? Mhen? the especially dark
Mhere? Mhy? Under
what conditions?
night.
‡ Often end in -ly
Adverbs
‡ Describe verbs, ‡ ] ample:
adjectives, or other
adverbs.
Me do not very often
‡ Answer the adverb want them here, for
questions: How? Mhen? they are always late
Mhere? Mhy? Under
what conditions?
and almost never want
‡ Often end in -ly to go there with us.
‡ Always adverbs: not
very, often, here,
almost, always,
never, there
Adverbs
‡ Describe verbs, adjectives, or other
adverbs.
‡ Answer the adverb questions: How?
Mhen? Mhere? Mhy? Under what
conditions?
‡ Often end in -ly
‡ Always adverbs: not very, often, here,
almost, always, never, there
The interjection
is an e clamatory word that e presses
emotion

oodness! Mhat a cute baby!

Mow! Look at that


sunset!
Interjections
‡ Mords which show ‡ ] ample:
emotion or are ³fillers´ Oh, I am surprised, but
with no other function. please don¶t do it
again. Ouch, you hurt
me.
Mork Sheet
‡ 9 minutes to complete.
‡ Pair activity.

4:39 AM Training Department