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Environmental Engineering

Engr. Muhammad Irfan


Masters Water Resources Engineering and Management
Course Introduction

• Water Resources
• Water Supply System
• Water quality and Water Treatment
• Water pollution, Air pollution and Noise pollution with control.
• Sewerage system.
• Sewer hydraulics. (design and detail of different sewer)
• Waste Water treatment with explanation.
What is Environmental
Engineering?

Definition: The application of science and


engineering knowledge and concepts to care for and/or
restore our natural environment and/or solve
environmental problems.
What does Environmental Engineers
do?

Environmental engineers use the principles of


engineering, soil science, biology and chemistry
to develop solutions to environmental problems

prevent the release of harmful chemical


and biological contaminants into the air,
water and soil
What are
environmental problems?
• Three areas:
• land quality
• air quality
• water quality
Land Quality
• Land pollution: degradation or destruction of earth’s
surface and soil, directly or indirectly as a result of
human activities.

• Any activity that reduces the quality and/or


productivity of the land as an ideal place for
agriculture, forestation, construction etc. .
Water Pollution
• Water is life. About 70% of the earth’s cover being water
• Pollution of water occurs when substances that will modify the water in
negative fashion are discharged in it
• several people die each day due to consumption of polluted and infected
water.
Causes of Land Pollution

Mining Operations Agricultural Activities Deforestation

Landfills Construction Activities Industrial Activities


Causes of Water Pollution

Sewage and waste water Industrial wastes

Chemical sprays in agricultural lands Leakage from sewer lines


Air Pollution
• Air pollution is the introduction of
particulates, biological molecules, or
other harmful materials into Earth's
atmosphere, causing diseases, allergies,
death to humans, damage to other living
organisms such as animals and food
crops, or the natural or built
environment.
Causes of Air pollution

Industrial Emissions Traffic Emissions

Forest fires, volcanoes etc Smoking (Indoor Air Pollution)


Water Supply
• Water Demand.
• Water Treatment.
• Water Distribution.

• Find a suitable source to fulfill the demand.


• Then check the quality of that water.
• Pass through some treatment process if the quality is not ok.
• Then that treated water must supply to the society which is water distribution.
• Water Production (Q wp).
• Water Supplies to the treatment plant at constant rate.
• Water delivery (Q wd).
• Water start from the clear water reservoir of the treatment plant. Supplies directly to
the distribution network. When the distribution area is located far away from the
treatment plant, the water is likely to be transported to another reservoir (B in fig) that
is usually constructed at the beginning of the distribution network.
• Water Consuption (Q wc).
• Quantity directly utilized by the consumers. Depends on many factors like users,
needs, climate, source capacity etc.
• Water leakage (Q wl).
• Is the amount of water physically lost from the system.

• Water Demand (Q d).

• Qd = Q wc + Q wl

• Expressed in cubic meters per hour (m3/hr), (l/s), liters per capita per day
(lpcpd), typical unit is (ft3/sec).

• Average demand/ Specific demand.


• The mean value derived from annual demand records divided by the number
of consumers.
For forecasting of water demand needs the
following questions to be answer.
• For which purpose is the water used ?
• Domestic, industrial, tourism etc.
• Who is the user?
• Water use within the same category may vary due to different cultures,
education, age, climate, religion, technological process etc.
• How valuable is the water?
• The water may be used under circumstances that restrict the demand : scarce
source ( quantity/quality), bad access (no direct connection, fetching from a
distance), low income of consumers etc.
Domestic consumption.
• Domestic water consumption is intended for toilet flushing, bathing
and showering, laundry, dishwashing and other less water intensive or
less frequent purposes: cooking, drinking, gardening, car washing etc.
• Presently about 70 percent of the total population in the country has
access to safe drinking water. The domestic water use in selected cities
of Pakistan was comprehensively examined. The per capita water
consumption varies significantly from 30 to 350 liter per capita per
day.
Non-domestic consumption
• water requirement is 45 lpcd.
• Non-domestic or commercial water use occur in industry, agriculture,
institutions and offices, tourism, etc.
• Industry.
• Cleaning, flushing, sterilization, conveying, cooling etc. But it depend on type
of industry and technological process. Unit is liter per unit of product or raw
material. Industrial demand is 20 – 25 % of total demand.
• Agriculture.
• Irrigation and livestock needs. The irrigation purposes depend on the plant
sort, stage of growth, type of irrigation, soil characteristics, climate conditions
etc. In Pakistan about 96% of its available water is being used for agriculture
and the remaining 4% for domestic, industrial and other purposes. Per capita
water availability has decreased from 5260 m3 in 1951 to 1050 m3 by the year
2010.
• Institutions.
• Commercial consumption in restaurants, shops, schools and other institutions can be
assessed as a total supply divided by the number of consumers ( employees, pupils,
patients, etc).
• Tourism.
• Tourist and recreational activities may also have a considerable impact
on water demand. The quantities per person (or per bed) per day vary
enormously depending on the type and category of accommodation; in
luxury hotels, for instance, this demand can go up to 600 l/c/d.

• Miscellaneous groups.
• Water consumption that does not belong to any of the above-listed
groups can be classified as miscellaneous. These are the quantities used
for fire fighting, public purposes (washing streets, maintaining green
areas, supply for fountains, etc.), maintenance of water and sewage
systems (cleansing, flushing mains) or other specific uses (military facilities, sport
complexes, zoos, etc.).
Fluctuations in rate of Demand
• Average Annual Daily Demand (AADD):
• The total quantity of water supplied for a period of one year divided by number of days in a year is
called average annual daily demand.
• If this demand is based on a single person then it is average per capita.
𝑄
• 𝑞=
365 𝑥 𝑃
• Q = Total quantity of water in liters
• P = Population
• Average Daily Demand
𝑄
• 𝐴𝐷𝐷 =
365 𝑥 𝑃
• Max Daily Demand (MDD) = ADD x 1.80
• Max Weakly Demand (MWD) = ADD x 1.48
• Max Hourly Demand (MHD) = ADD x 1.50
• Max Monthly Demand (MMD) = ADD x 1.28
• Mini rate of Demand (MRD) = (0.25-50) ADD
• Peak Hourly Demand (PHD)
• PHD = 1.5 x 1.8 x ADD = 2.70 x ADD
• Average Daily Demand:
• A rough estimate is used:

Use Percentage
Domestic 44

Industrial 24

Commercial 15

Losses and Waste 08


First design Population for demand
• The population quantity worked out from the previous data for
estimation requirement of the future.
• Design Period
• The future period for which a provision is made in the water supply is known
as the design period.
• There are various methods for estimating future population are give.
The particular method to be adopted for a particular case or for a
particular city selection.
Different forecasting methods
• Arithmetic increase method.
• Geometric increase method.
• Incremental increase method.
• Decreasing rate of Growth method.
• Simple Graphical method.
• Comparative Graphical method.
• Ratio Method.
• Logistic Curve method.
Arithmetic Increase Method.
This method is suitable for large and old city with considerable development.
If it is used for small, average or comparatively new cities, it will give lower
population estimate than actual value. In this method the average increase
in population per decade is calculated from the past census reports. This
increase is added to the present population to find out the population of the
next decade. Thus, it is assumed that the population is increasing at constant
rate.
Hence, dP/dt = C i.e., rate of change of population with respect to time is
constant.
Therefore, Population after nth decade will be
Pn= P + n.C
Where Pn is population after “n” decades, P is the Present Population.
Example No 1
• Predict the population for the year 2021,2031 and 2041 from the following
population data.
Year 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011

Population 858545 1015672 1201553 1691538 2077820 2585862


• Solution.
Year Population Increase

1961 858545 -

1971 1015672 157127

1981 1201553 185881

1991 1691538 489985

2001 2077820 386282

2011 2585862 508042


• Average Increment = 345463 This is the constant value (C)

• Population forecasting for year 2021 is P2021= 2585862 + 345463*1 = 2931325

• P2031 = 2585862 + 345463 * 2 = 3276788

• P2041 = 2585862 + 345463 * 3 = 3622251


Geometrical Increase method.
• In this method the percentage increase in population from decade to decade is
assumed to remain constant. Geometric mean increase is used to find out the future
increment in population. Since this method gives higher values and hence should be
applied for a new industrial town at the beginning of development for only few
decades. The population at the end of nth decade ‘Pn’ can be estimated as:
𝑟 𝑛
𝑃𝑛 = 𝑃 1 +
100
Where r = mean growth rate in %.
P = Present population, n = no of decades and Pn = Future population.
Geometric increase (r)= (increase in population /initial population ) * 100
Geomatric mean (r) = 𝑟1 ∗ 𝑟2 ∗ 𝑟3 … … . . 1/𝑡

Where t = no of decades.
• Example no 2
Considering data given in example 1 predict the population for the year 2021, 2031
and 2041 using geometrical increase method.
Solution.
• Geometric mean r = ( 0.81* 0.81 * 0.40 * 0.23 * 0.24 ) ^ 1/5
= 0.235 that is 23.5 %.

Population in year 2021 is, P2021 = 2585862 * (1 + 0.235)^1 = 3193540.


P2031 = 2585862 * (1 + 0.235 )^2 = 3944021.
P2041 = 2585862 * (1 + 0.235)^3 = 4870866.
Incremental Increase method.
• This method is an extension of arithmetic increase method.
• The future population by this method is based on average increment over
increases which may be positive or negative.
• Let Y bar be the average of the increment over increases.

𝑛 𝑛+1
𝑃𝑛 = 𝑃𝑜 + 𝑛𝑋 + ±𝑌
2
where n= no of decade.
• Example 1. Given that population some place is 50000 in 1990. The average
increase in population is 5000 per decade and average incremental increase is
500 per decade. Then the expected population of that place in 2020 will be ?

• Solution.
• Population in 1990 = 50000.
• Average increase in population per decade = 5000 = X.
• Average incremental increase per decade = 500 = Y
• n = no of decades = (2020 – 1990)/ 10 = 3

𝑛 𝑛+1
𝑃𝑛 = 𝑃𝑜 + 𝑛𝑋 + ±𝑌
2
P2020 = 50000 + 3* 5000 + 3(3+1) /2 (500)
= 68000
Decreasing growth rate method.
• When the increasing rate in population starts decreasing. It does not
means that the future population start decreasing.
• Increasing rate in population starts decreasing reaches to saturation
point.
• Saturation Point
• The rate of increasing become decrease and decrease reaches to a point at
which further decrease not occur with respect to time.

𝑛𝐷
𝑃𝑛 = 𝑃𝑜 (1 + (𝑟 − )
100
Where Pn = future population, Po = latest population.
r= latest known last decade % increase.
D = Average decrease in % increases.
• Example. Population statistic belong to a town are given below. Find the
population in 2030 by decreasing growth rate method.
Year 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010

Population 25000 28000 34000 42000 47000

• Solution.
Year Population r (per decade % increase) D (decrease in % increase)

1970 25000 25000−28000


∗ 100 = 12 % 12 – 21.43 = -9.43
25000

1980 28000 21.43% 21.43-23.52 = -2.09

1990 34000 23.52% 23.52 – 11.9 = 11.62

2000 42000 11.90%

2010 47000
−9.43 − 2.09 + 11.62
𝐷=
3
= 0.033
No of decade given = 2 (2010 ---- 2030)
𝑟−𝐷 𝑟−2𝐷
𝑃2030 = 𝑃2010 1 + 1+
100 100

11.9 − 0.033 11.9 − 2 ∗ 0.033


= 47000 1 + 1+
100 100
= 58800
Logistic Curve method.(Growth Curve)
• There are three factors responsible for changes in population are :
• 1) Births, (2) Deaths and (3) Migrations.
• Logistic curve method is based on the hypothesis that when these
varying curve influences do not produce extraordinary changes, the
population would probably follow the growth curve characteristics of
living things within limited space and with limited economic
opportunity. This curve is S-shaped and known as logistic curve.
𝑃𝑠
• 𝑃𝑡 = equation of logistic curve.
1+𝑚𝑒 𝑛𝑡
• Where
2𝑃𝑜𝑃1𝑃2−𝑃12 𝑃𝑜+𝑃2
• 𝑃𝑠 =
𝑃𝑜𝑃2 −𝑃12

𝑃𝑠−𝑃𝑜
•𝑚=
𝑃𝑜

1
•𝑛= ln(𝑃𝑜(𝑃𝑠 − 𝑃1)/𝑃1(𝑃𝑠 − 𝑃𝑜))
𝑡1
• Example. In two periods each of 20 years a city has grown from 30000 to
17000 and then to 300000. Determine expected population after the next
20 years.
• Solution.
Po = 30000 at to = 0
P1 = 170000 at t1 = 20
P2 = 300000 at t3 = 40

Ps = 325478 , m = 9.85, n = -0.118.


Then Pt = 322802
• Arithmetic increase method. Suitable for large and old cities with
considerable development, used for small, average or comparatively new
cities. It will give lower population estimate than actual value.
• Geometric increase method. Should be applied for a new industrial town at
the beginning of development for only few decades. It gives higher value.
• Incremental increase method. Suitable for an average size town under normal
condition where the growth rate is found to be in increasing order.
• Logistic curve method. When the growth rate of population due to births,
deaths and migrations takes place under normal situation and it is not
subjected to any extraordinary changes like epidemic, war, earth quake or any
natural disaster. and the population follows the growth curve characteristics of
living things limited space and economic opportunity.
• Fire Demand.
• Is the amount of water that is required for fighting fire.
• Different methods.

𝑃
• 1) Kuichling,s Formula 𝑄 = 3182 Q = liter/min
1000

5663 𝑃
• 2) Buston,s Formula. 𝑄=
1000

𝑃
• 3) Freeman,s Formula. 𝑄 = 1136 + 10
5000

• 4) National board of fire underwriters formula or American insurance


association.
4637 𝑃 0.01 𝑃
𝑄= 1−
1000 1000
Q = liter/min
For Fire fighting.
• Low risk areas – P ≤ 2500 duration of fire:4-5hrs.
• High risk areas- P > 2500 duration of fire:10 hrs.