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y World s second largest manufacturer of electronic
y 50 manufacturing plants, 21 countries
y HRM viewed as most localized of all the functions y Hires experienced , educated foreign nationals in the
US for foreign postings y Moves people around the world y In house management development programs
Human resource management (HRM)
y Refers to the activities an organization carries out to
use its human resources effectively
y Four major tasks of HRM y Staffing policy y Management training and development y Performance appraisal y Compensation policy
culture.International human resource management y Strategic role: HRM policies should be congruent with the firm s strategy and it s formal and informal structure and controls y Right People. Right Time y Task complicated by profound differences between countries in labor markets. legal and economic systems 18-4 . Right Place.
Strategy. structure and control systems 18-5 .
Staffing policy y Staffing policy y Selecting individuals with requisite skills to do a particular job y Tool for developing and promoting corporate culture y View People as Resource ($in profit out) y Types of Staffing Policy y Ethnocentric y Polycentric y Geocentric 18-6 .
Ethnocentric policy y Key management positions filled by parent- country nationals y Advantages: y Unified culture y Overcomes lack of qualified managers in host nation y Helps transfer core competencies (and skills back) y Disadvantages: y Produces resentment in host country y Can lead to cultural myopia 18-7 .
y Can create gap between home-and host-country operations 18-8 .Polycentric policy y Host-country nationals manage subsidiaries y Parent company nationals hold key headquarter positions y Best suited to multi-domestic businesses y Advantages: y Alleviates cultural myopia. y Inexpensive to implement y Helps transfer core competencies y Disadvantages: y Limits opportunity to gain experience of host-country nationals outside their own country.
Geocentric policy y Seek best people. regardless of nationality y not always possible y Best suited to Global and trans-national businesses y Advantages: y Enables the firm to make best use of its human resources y Equips executives to work in a number of cultures y Helps build strong unifying culture and informal management network y Disadvantages: y National immigration policies may limit implementation y Expensive to implement due to training and relocation y Compensation structure can be a problem. 18-9 .
Comparison of staffing approaches 18-10 .
The expatriate problem y Expatriate: citizens of one country working in another y Expatriate failure: premature return of the expatriate manager to his/her home country y Cost of failure is high: estimate = 3X the expatriate s annual salary plus the cost of relocation (impacted by currency exchange rates and assignment location) y Inpatriates: expatriates who are citizens of a foreign country working in the home country of their multinational employer 18-11 .
Expatriate failure rates 18-12 .
Reasons for expatriate failure y y US multinationals y Inability of spouse to adjust y Manager s inability to adjust y Other family problems y Manager s personal or emotional immaturity y Inability to cope with larger overseas responsibilities y European multinationals y Inability of spouse to adjust Japanese Firms y Inability to cope with larger overseas responsibilities y Difficulties with the new environment y Personal or emotional problems y Lack of technical competence y Inability of spouse to adjust. 18-13 .
Expatriate selection y Reduce expatriate failure rates by improving selection procedures y An executive s domestic performance does not (necessarily) equate his/her overseas performance potential y Employees need to be selected not solely on technical expertise but also on cross-cultural fluency 18-14 .
self-confidence and mental well-being y Others-Orientation Ability to develop relationships with host-country nationals y Willingness to communicate y y Perceptual Ability The ability to understand why people of other countries behave the way they do y Being nonjudgmental and being flexible in management style y y Cultural Toughness y Relationship between country of assignment and the expatriate s adjustment to it 18-15 .Four attributes that predict success y Self-Orientation y Possessing high self-esteem.
Training and management development y Training: Obtaining skills for a particular foreign posting y Cultural training : Seeks to foster an appreciation of the host-country s culture y Language training : Can improve expatriate s effectiveness. aids in relating more easily to foreign culture and fosters a better firm image y Practical training: Ease into day-to-day life of the host country 18-16 .
Training & management development continued y Development: Broader concept involving developing manager s skills over his or her career with the firm y Several foreign postings over a number of years y Attend management education programs at regular intervals 18-17 .
Firm vague about return. Leave firm within one year.Repatriation of expatriates Didn¶t know what position they hold upon return. role and career progression. Leave firm within three years 10 20 30 40 percent 50 60 70 18-18 . Took lower level job.
Management development & strategy y Development programs designed to increase the overall skill levels of managers through: y On going management education y Rotation of managers through a number of jobs within the firm to give broad range of experiences y Used as a strategic tool to build a strong unifying culture and informal management network y Above techniques support transnational and global strategies 18-19 .
18-20 .S.Performance appraisal y Problems: y Unintentional bias y y Host-nation biased by cultural frame of reference Home-country biased by distance and lack of experience working abroad y Expatriate managers believe that headquarters unfairly evaluates and under appreciates them y In a survey of personnel managers in U. multinationals. 56% stated foreign assignment either detrimental or immaterial to one s career.
Guidelines for performance appraisal y More weight should be given to onsite manager s evaluation as they are able to recognize the soft variables y Expatriate who worked in same location should assist home-office manager with evaluation y If foreign on-site managers prepare an evaluation. home-office manager should be consulted before completion of formal the terminal evaluation 18-21 .
Compensation y Two issues: y Pay executives in different countries according to the standards in each country? or Equalize pay on a global basis? y Method of payment 18-22 .
Compensation for four positions in 26 countries 18-23 .
302 306.874 44.228 421.785 102.375 30. 070 189.289 36.899 HR Director $326.652 107.622 179.486 719.377 Mfg.704 742.665 1. 948 44. 884 36.403.National differences in compensation Table 18.934 11.924 28.491 268.4 b CEO Argentina Canada Germany Taiwan United Kingdom United States $860.866 61.874 188. Employee $17.181 Accountant $63.839 66.680 18-24 .
1 18-25 .National differences in CEO pay for midsize companies Fig 18.
Pay can and should be country-specific. 18-26 Ethnocentric Polycentric Geocentric/Transnational .Compensation issues Type of Company Payment How much home-country expatriates should be paid. May have to pay its international cadre of managers the same.
health care.Expatriate pay y Typically use balance sheet approach y Equalizes purchasing power to maintain same standard of living across countries y Provides financial incentives to offset qualitative differences between assignment locations. etc. 18-27 . y Pay for Schools.
cost-of-living and education allowances y Taxation y Firm pays expatriate s income tax in the host country y Benefits y Level of medical and pension benefits identical overseas 18-28 . housing.Components of expatriate pay y Base Salary y Same range as a similar position in the home country y Foreign service premium y Extra pay for work outside country of origin y Allowances y Hardship.
The balance sheet 18-29 .
International labor relations y Key Issue y Degree to which organized labor can limit the choices of an international business y Aims to foster harmony and minimize conflicts between firms and organized labor 18-30 .
Concerns of organized labor y Multinational can counter union bargaining power with threats to move production to another country y Multinational will keep highly skilled tasks in its home country and farm out only low-skilled tasks to foreign plants y Attempts to import employment practices and y Easy to switch locations if economic conditions warrant y Bargaining power of organized labor is reduced contractual agreements from multinationals home country 18-31 .
Strategy of organized labor y Attempts to establish international labor organizations y Lobby for national legislation to restrict multinationals y Attempts to achieve international regulations on multinationals through such organizations as the United Nations 18-32 .
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