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Leadership and Decision Making

Topic 2: Leadership Behaviours

Dr. Greig Taylor

Lecture outline

• Review last week’s theme – an intro. to the nature of


• Leadership behaviour studies: Ohio and Michigan

• Case studies

• Part 2 – Assignment workshop

Research on leadership behaviour
Early research on leader behaviour conducted by US psychologists in the
1950s and 1960s

Ohio State University

“To identify categories of leadership behaviour and develop

questionnaires to measure how often a leader uses these behaviours”

University of Michigan

“To identify the relationships among leader behaviour, group processes

and measures of group performance”
Ohio State University studies

Ohio State research method

2. 5.
1. Developed
3. 4.
Refined the
questionnaire Refined Discovered
Identified questionnaire,
to measure categories that they were
various which have
how often according to broadly
categories of since been
these followers’ groupable as
leadership used in
categories perception of consideration
behaviour hundreds of
were used by the leader and initiating

Ohio State University survey

• Think of a leader you know personally.

• READ each item carefully.

• THINK about how frequently the leader engages in the behaviour described by the item.

• DECIDE whether he/she (A) Always (B) Often, (C) Occasionally, (D) Seldom or (E) Never acts
as described by the item.

Research on leadership behaviour
The Ohio studies identified two main types of leader behaviour:

• Consideration

• Initiating

“ Consideration and initiating structures

Consideration Initiating

Leader: Leader:
• has concern for employees • has concern for completing tasks
• has concern for interpersonal • defines leader role
relationships • defines employee role(s)
• acts in a friendly and supportive • focuses on goal achievement

Examples of this behaviour: Examples of this behaviour:

• does a personal favour for • assigns tasks to employees

employee • maintains performance standards
• finds time to listen to problems • focuses on deadlines
• defends workers in his / her section • criticises poor work performance
• consults with employees • separately coordinates the work
• accepts that employees have activity of different employee groups
something to contribute

“ Results of Ohio study
Inverse correlation between turnover and Positive correlation between turnover
consideration leader behaviour and initiating leader behaviour

E.A. Fleishman and E.F. Harris " Patterns of Leadership Behavior Related to Employee Grievances and
Turnover." Personnel Psychology, 1962, 15, 43-56.

The study
Michigan studies

Daniel Katz Rensis Likert

1903 - 1998 1903 - 1981

“ Michiganresearch method
studies (continued)

1. 3. 4. 5.
Field studies 2. Objective
measures of
leaders were
with variety of of effective vs
Information group more likely to
leaders ineffective
collected via productivity to be task
(insurance managers
interviews and classify oriented,
companies, identified
questionnaire managers as relations
railroad differences in
effective / oriented and
gangs) behaviour
ineffective participative


Broad Behaviour
Results Categories
of Michigan studyin the Michigan Studies

task relations participative

• Concentrated on • Showing trust and • Group (rather than

task-oriented confidence, friendly individual)
functions such as and considerate, supervision, conflict
planning, develop employees, resolution, group
scheduling, keeping employees decision-making,
coordinating, informed, recognise supportive,
ensuring resources, performance constructive.
realistic goals

Version Woodruff 2014 SIM

Results of Michigan study

• Task oriented behaviour is concerned with accomplishing a task

efficiently and reliably

• Relations oriented (sometimes called people-oriented) behaviour is

concerned with increasing employee trust, cooperation, job
satisfaction with the organisation

• Participative behaviour is concerned with emphasising the team or

group through empowering employees and involving them in
decision making

Taj Mahal Palace
Video Clip

• Bridgit

- What type of leader behaviour does she demonstrate?

What makes you think this?

- What are the advantages and disadvantages of this type

of leader behaviour?

Video Clip

• Alexandra

- What type of leader behaviour does she demonstrate?

What makes you think this?

- What are the advantages and disadvantages of this type

of leader behaviour?
A critical view of the Ohio and Michigan studies

Surveys have two key weaknesses:

• Limitations of data in fixed-response questionnaires

o Bias/objectivity

o Disconnect between questionnaire answers and reality

• Confirming causality

o Can’t be sure that behaviours caused the outcome observed

o May be other factors influencing outcome

The Blake and Mouton grid 1
• Built on Ohio studies and invited managers to plot their
questionnaire results on to a grid.

• This was then used to categorise leaders into five

o Impoverished

o Sweat shop

o Status quo

o Country club

o Fully functioning 17
The Blake and Mouton grid 2

The Blake and Mouton grid 3

Blake, R. R., Mouton, J. S., & Bidwell, A. C. (1962). Managerial grid. Advanced Management - Office Executive, 1(9),