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INTRODUCTION

© 2017, John R. Fanchi

All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced in


any form without the express written permission of the author.
To the Instructor

The set of files here are designed to help you prepare lectures
for your own course using the text Introduction to Petroleum
Engineering, J.R. Fanchi and R.L. Christiansen (Wiley, 2017)

File format is kept simple so that you can customize the files
with relative ease using your own style. You will need to
supplement the files to complete the presentation topics.
Outline

 What is Petroleum?
 What is Petroleum Engineering?
 Oilfield Units
 How Do We Access the Resource?
 Life Cycle of a Reservoir

Homework: IPE Ch. 1


WHAT IS PETROLEUM?
Formation of Petroleum

Biogenic Theory
Chemical Basis of Fossil Fuels

APPROXIMATE ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS


(% BY MASS)
Carbon 84 – 87
Hydrogen 11 - 14
Sulphur 0.06 - 8
Nitrogen 0.02 - 1.7
Oxygen 0.08 - 1.8
Metals 0 - 0.14

Petroleum Composition

Biochemistry
Producing Fluid Ratios

 Gas/Oil Ratio (GOR)


 cf gas/bbl oil = rate gas/rate oil
 Water/Oil Ratio (WOR)
 bbl water/bbl oil = rate water/rate oil
 Water cut
 bbl water/(bbl oil + bbl water) = rate water/(rate oil + rate water)
API Gravity

141.5
API   131.5
Specific gravity at 60 F

Fluid °API
Fresh water 10
Heavy oil < 25
Average oil 25 - 35
Light oil 35 - 45
Classification of Oil and Gas

Fluid Separator GOR Gravity Behavior in Reservoir due


Type (MSCF/STB) (°API) to Pressure Decrease
Dry gas No surface Remains gas
liquids
Wet gas > 50 40 to 60 Remains gas
Condensate 3.3 - 50 40 to 60 Gas with liquid drop out
Volatile oil 2.0 – 3.3 > 40 Liquid with significant gas
Black oil < 2.0 < 45 Liquid with some gas
Heavy oil ≈0 Negligible gas formation
Classifying Hydrocarbon Liquid Types
Using API Gravity and Viscosity

API Gravity Viscosity


Liquid Type
(degrees API) (centipoises)
Light oil > 31.1
Medium oil 22.3 to 31.1
Heavy oil 10 to 22.3
Water 10 1 cp
Extra heavy oil 4 to 10 < 10,000 cp
Bitumen 4 to 10 > 10,000 cp
WHAT IS PETROLEUM ENGINEERING?
Aspects of Petroleum Engineering

 Drilling Engineering
 Production Engineering
 Reservoir Engineering
OILFIELD UNITS
Examples of Common Unit Systems

Length ft m ft
Time hr sec sec
Pressure psia Pa lbf/ft2
Volumetric flow rate bbl/day m3/s ft3/s
Viscosity cp Pa∙s lbf∙s/ft2
HOW DO WE ACCESS THE RESOURCE?
Typical Project Workflow

 Identify project opportunities


 Generate and evaluate alternatives
 Select and design the desired alternative
 Implement the alternative
 Operate the alternative
 Over the life of the project
 Include abandonment
 Evaluate the success of the project
 Learn lessons
 Apply lessons to future projects
Traditional E&P Company Processes – 1
[after Raymond and Leffler, 2006, Fig. 12-2]

 Evaluate assets
 Negotiate or bid and acquire assets
 Model resource and reservoir *
 Acquire subsurface data *
 Prepare subsurface development plan *
 Well design *
 Surface facilities design *
* May be outsourced to service companies
Traditional E&P Company Processes – 2
[after Raymond and Leffler, 2006, Fig. 12-2]

 Construct facilities *
 Drill wells *
 Operate wells *
 Maintain facilities *
 Maintain wells *
 Monitor and evaluate reservoir performance *
 Abandon facilities and wells
* May be outsourced to service companies
Evolution of Drilling Rigs

 Cable tool drilling rig use peaks circa 1859


 Transition to rotary drilling rig circa 1900 – 1930
 Rotary rigs appear late 1800s; dominate today

Derrick
Walking Beam

Cable Tool Drilling Rig Bull


Wheel

Engine
Bit
Rotary Drilling Rig
Basic Drilling Functions
 Prime Movers
 Engines
 Hoisting System
 Raise and lower pipe (e.g. drillstring, casing, tubing)
 Derrick, drawworks, blocks and hook
 Rotating System
 Rotate drillstring and bit
 Swivel, kelly, rotary table
 Circulating System
 Circulate drilling fluid
 Pumps, standpipe, return line, solids control equipment
 Controlling System
 Control pressure
 Blowout preventers, choke system
Wellbore Diagram for Vertical Well

Concentration
(ppm)
Fresh water < 1,000
Brackish water 1,000 to 35,000
Brine > 35,000
Source: Hyne (2012, pg 18)
Well Orientation
Vertical Deviated Horizontal
Well Well Well
Advances in Drilling Technology
Hydraulic Fracturing

Develop shale gas by combining directional


drilling and hydraulic fracturing
Exploration Wells

 Wildcat (aka controlled exploratory well)


 Test a trap that has never produced (new field wildcat)
 Test a new reservoir in a known field
 Extend known limits of producing reservoir
 Rank wildcat
 Well drilled at least 2 miles (3 kms) from known production
 Discovery well
 The wildcat discovers new field
Development Wells

 Wells for estimating field size


 Appraisal well
 Delineation well
 Step out well
 Development well
 Well drilled in known extent of field
 Infill well
 Well drilled between producing wells in established field
Well Function

 Production well
 Produce gas and/or liquids
 Produce heat
 e.g. geothermal wells
 Injection well
 Inject gas and/or liquids
 Includes
 Disposal well
 Sequestration well
 Inject heat
 e.g. steam flood
LIFE CYCLE OF A RESERVOIR
Typical Production Profile
Stages in the Life of a Reservoir

Stage Function
Exploration Identify resource prospects

Discovery Find resource

Delineation Determine size of resource

Development Prepare strategy for extracting resources

Production Produce resource

Abandonment Leave resource location


Sketch of Production Stages
Stages of Recovery

 Primary Recovery
 Natural Flow or Artificial Lift
 Secondary Recovery
 Waterflood or Gas Injection
 Tertiary Recovery
 Thermal (steam or in-situ)
 Gas Injection (CO2, N2, etc.)
 Chemical
 Microbial
Stages in the Life of a Reservoir
 Exploration
 Discovery
 Delineation
 Development
 Primary
 Secondary
 Tertiary
 Infill Drilling
 EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery)
 IOR (Improved Oil Recovery)
 EGR (Enhanced Gas Recovery)
 Abandonment
QUESTIONS?
SUPPLEMENT