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By

Manvi Malhotra
WHAT IS POWER?
A capacity that A has to influence the
behavior of B, so that B acts in accordance
with A’s wishes.

Power : A function of Dependency:


B’s relationship to A when A possesses
something that B requires.
Power
Power is the capacity of a
person, team, or organization to
influence others.
 The potential to influence
others
 People have power they don’t
use and may not know they
possess
 Power requires one person’s
perception of dependence on
another person
Individual Power
Why does having power matter?
With power one can…

 Intercede favorably on behalf of someone in trouble,


 Get a desirable placement for a talented subordinate,
 Get approval for expenditures beyond the budget,
 Get items on and off agendas,
 Get fast access to decision makers,
 Maintain regular, frequent contact with decision makers, and
 Acquire early information about decisions and policy shifts.
Power and Dependence

Person B’s
counter
power over Person
Person A A

Person Person
B Person A’s
power over B’s Goals
Person B
Model of Power in Organizations

Sources
Of Power

Power
Legitimate over Others
Reward
Coercive
Expert Contingencies
Referent Of Power
Sources of Power

Legitimate Power Reward Power

Coercive Power Expert Power

Referent Power
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Sources of Individual Power

Formal individual Informal individual


power is the power power is the power
that stems from a that stems from
person’s position in personal
an organization’s characteristics.
hierarchy.
Reward and Coercive Power

Power that achieves compliance based on the


ability to distribute rewards that others view
as valuable
Coercive Power: the opposite of reward
power: the power that is based on fear of
negative results.
Legitimate Power
One’s structural position
The power a person receives as a result of
his or her position in the formal hierarchy of
an organization
Expert Power Referent Power

Influence is based on Influence is based


special skills or on possession by an
knowledge individual of
desirable resources
or personal traits

The desire to
please…
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Sources of Formal Power

 Legitimate:
Legitimate The power to control and use
organizational resources to accomplish organizational
goals.
 Reward:
Reward The power to give pay raises, promotion,
praise, interesting projects, and other rewards to
subordinates.
 Coercive:
Coercive The power to give or withhold punishment,
such as suspension, termination, or even the
withholding of praise and goodwill.
 Information:
Information The power that stems from access to and
control over information.
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Sources of Informal Power

Expert:
Expert Informal power that stems from
superior ability or expertise.
Referent:
Referent Informal power that stems from
being liked, admired, and respected.
Charismatic:
Charismatic An intense form of referent
power that stems from an individual’s
personality or physical or other abilities, which
induce others to believe in and follow that
person.
Power Tactics
Ways in which individuals translate power bases into
specific actions.

Influence Tactics:
Legitimacy
Rational Persuasion
Inspirational Appeals
Consultation
Exchange
Personal Appeals
Ingratiation
Pressure
Coailitions
Preferred Power Tactics by
Influence Direction
Upward Influence Downward Lateral Influence
Influence

Rational Persuasion Rational Persuasion Rational Persuasion


Inspirational Appeals Consultation
Pressure Ingratiation
Consultation Exchange
Ingratiation Legitimacy
Exchange Personnel Appeals
Legitimacy
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The Dark Side of Power and


Politics
Power and politics often
have negative
connotations because
people associate them
with attempts to use
organizational resources
for personal advantage
and to achieve personal
goals at the expense of
other goals.
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The Bright Side of Power

 Managers can use power to


control people and other
resources so that they
cooperate and help to
achieve an organization’s
current goals.
 Managers can use power to
engage in politics and
influence the decision-
making process to help
promote new, more
appropriate organizational
goals.
Consequences of Power
Sources Consequences
of Power of Power

Expert
Power

Referent Commitment
Power
Legitimate
Power Compliance
Reward
Power
Coercive Resistance
Power
Sexual Harassment and Power

Harasser stereotypes the victim as


subservient and powerless.
Harasser threatens job security or safety
through coercive or legitimate power.
Hostile work environment harassment
continues when the victim lacks power to stop
the behaviour.
Politics/Political Behavior

Organizational politics is all about--actions not


officially approved by an organization that are
taken to influence others to meet one's personal
goals.

Organizational politics does involve planning one's


self-interest above the interests of the
organization.
Types: Of Political Behavior

Legitimate Political Behavior


Normal everyday politics.

Illegitimate Political Behavior


Extreme political behavior that violates the
implied rules of the game.
Factors Influencing Political
Behavior
Individual factors
High self-monitors
Internal locus of control
High Mach personality
Organizational Political
investment behaviour
Perceived job alternatives
Expectations of success Favourable
Organizational Factors Low Rewards
outcomes
Averted
Reallocation of Resources High
Promotion Opportunities Punishments
Low Trust
Role Ambiguity
Zero sum reward Practice
Democratic decision
making
High performance
pressure
Self serving senior
managers
Employee Responses to
Organizational Politics
Decreased Job Satisfaction

Increased Anxiety and


Organizational Stress
Politics
May
Threaten
Employees. Increased Turnover

Reduced Performance
Organizational Politics: More Likely at the
Top
Extent to Which Political Activity is Likely (range 0-3)

1.3 Political activity (1.22)


1.2 is perceived to
increase at higher (1.07)
1.1
organizational levels
1.0
.9
.8
(.73)
.7
(.54)
.6 (.50)
.5
.4
.3 (.18)
.2
.1
Production and Clerical and Technical and Lower Middle Upper
blue collar white collar professional management management management
Organizational Level
Types of Organizational Politics
Managing Attacking and
impressions blaming

Creating
Types of Controlling
obligations Organizational information
Politics

Cultivating Forming
networks coalitions
Impression Management
The process by which individuals attempt to
control the impression others form of them.
Impression Management Techniques:
Conformity
Excuses
Apologies
Self-Promotion
Flattery
Favors
Association
Creating Attacking and
obligations blaming
Types of
Organizational
You Politics It was
scratch my John’s
back… fault

Cultivating Forming Controlling


networks coalitions information

Look who We agreed I thought


I know… that… you
Conditions for Organizational
Politics

Personal Scarce
Characteristics Resources
Conditions
Supporting
Organizational
Politics
Complex and
Tolerance of
Ambiguous
Politics
Decisions
Conditions for Organizational
Politics

Personal Scarce
Characteristics Resources
Internal Conditions Perceived
locus of alternatives?
control
Supporting
Organizational
Deceit is Politics Zero-sum
appropriate rewards
Complex and
Tolerance of
Ambiguous
Politics
Decisions

It works here Democratic


decision making
Ethics of Behaving Politically

What is the utility of engaging in politicking?

How does the utility of engaging in political behavior


Balance out any harm it will do to others?

 Does the political activity confirm to standards of


equity and justice?
Controlling Political Behaviour
Provide
Remove
Sufficient
Political Norms
Resources

Hire
Introduce
Low-Politics
Clear Rules
Employees

Increase
Free Flowing
Opportunities
Information
for Dialogue

Manage Change Peer Pressure


Effectively Against Politics
Global Implications

Politics Perceptions
When people see their work environment as
political, negative consequences in their overall
work attitude result.
Preference for Power Tactics
People in different countries tend to prefer
different power tactics.
Effectiveness of Power Tactics