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You are on page 1of 23

Start with a "t" chart and let's choose values from our unit

circle and find the sine values.

plot these points

x y = sin x y

0 0 1

1

6 2

x

1 -1

2

5 1

6 2 We are dealing with x's and y's on the unit circle

to find values. These are completely different

from the x's and y's used here for our function.

choose more values y = f(x) = sin x

x y = sin x

plot these points

0

7 1 join the points

6 2 y

3

1 1

2

11 1

6 2 2 x

-1 6

2 0

to repeat since this is periodic.

Here is the graph y = f(x) = sin x showing

from -2 to 6. Notice it repeats with a

period of 2.

2 2 2 2

that is the range of the sine function)

What are the x intercepts? Where does sin x = 0?

7 3 5

2 2 2 2

3 2 0 2 3 4

7 3 5

, , ,

2 2 2 2

Where is the function minimum? Where does sin x = -1?

5 3 7

, , ,

2 2 2 2

7 3 5

2 2 2 2

3 2 0 2 3 4

5 3 7

2 2 2 2

Thinking about transformations that you learned

and knowing what y = sin x looks like, what do

you suppose y = sin x + 2 looks like?

with terms traded

places so as not to

confuse the 2 with

part of sine function

(or y value) is just

moved up 2.

y = sin x

Thinking about transformations that you've

learned and knowing what y = sin x looks like,

what do you suppose y = sin x - 1 looks like?

y = sin x

The function value

(or y value) is just

moved down 1.

y = - 1 + sin x

Thinking about transformations that you learned

and knowing what y = sin x looks like, what do

you suppose y = sin (x + /2) looks like?

y = sin x

This is a horizontal

shift by - /2

y = sin (x + /2)

Thinking about transformations that you learned

and knowing what y = sin x looks like, what do

you suppose y = - sin (x )+1 looks like?

y = 1 - sin (x )

This is a reflection about

the x axis (shown in

green) and then a

vertical shift up one.

y = - sin x

y = sin x

What would the graph of y = f(x) = cos x look like?

We could do a "t" chart and let's choose values from our

unit circle and find the cosine values.

plot these points

x y = cos x y

0 1 1

1

3 2

x

0 -1 6

2

2 1

3 2 We could have used the same values as we did

for sine but picked ones that gave us easy

values to plot.

y = f(x) = cos x

Choose more values.

x y = cos x

plot these points

1 y

4 1

1

3 2

3

0

2 x

5 1 -1 6

3 2

around the unit circle

Here is the graph y = f(x) = cos x showing

from -2 to 6. Notice it repeats with a

period of 2.

2 2 2 2

that is the range of the cosine function)

Recall that an even function (which the cosine is)

is symmetric with respect to the y axis as can be

seen here

What are the x intercepts? Where does cos x = 0?

3 3 5

, , , ,

2 2 2 2 2

2 0 2

3 3 5

2 2 2 2 2

…-4, -2, , 0, 2, 4, . . .

Where is the function minimum? Where does cos x = -1?

2 0 2

3 3 5

4

2 2 2 2 2

3 3

You could graph transformations of the cosine function the

same way you've learned for other functions.

moves up 3 moves right /4

Let's try y = 3 - cos (x - /4)

reflects over x axis

y = - cos x

y = cos x

What would happen if we multiply the function by a

constant? All function values would be twice as high

y = 2 sin x

amplitude is here

amplitude

of this y = 2 sin x

graph is 2

y = sin x

called the amplitude.

For y = A cos x and y = A sin x, A is the amplitude.

y = 4 cos x y = -3 sin x

amplitude is 4 amplitude is 3

The last thing we want to see is what happens if we put

a coefficient on the x.

y = sin 2x

y = sin 2x

y = sin x

complete cycle in half the time so the period becomes .

What do you think will happen to the graph if we put a

fraction in front?

1

y sin x

2

y = sin 1/2 x

y = sin x

So if we look at y = sin x the affects the

period.

2 This will

be true for

The period T =

cosine as

well.

2

What is the period of y = cos 4x? T

4 2

y = cos x

This means

the graph

will "cycle"

every /2 or

4 times as

often y = cos 4x

absolute value of this

is the amplitude

y A cos t y A sin t

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