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# GRAPHS OF

## We are interested in the graph of y = f(x) = sin x

Start with a "t" chart and let's choose values from our unit
circle and find the sine values.
plot these points
x y = sin x y

0 0 1
 1
6 2
x

1 -1
2
5 1
6 2 We are dealing with x's and y's on the unit circle
to find values. These are completely different
from the x's and y's used here for our function.
choose more values y = f(x) = sin x
x y = sin x
plot these points
 0
7 1 join the points

6 2 y
3
1 1
2
11 1
 
6 2  2 x
-1 6
2 0

## If we continue picking values for x we will start

to repeat since this is periodic.
Here is the graph y = f(x) = sin x showing
from -2 to 6. Notice it repeats with a
period of 2.
2 2 2 2

## It has a maximum of 1 and a minimum of -1 (remember

that is the range of the sine function)
What are the x intercepts? Where does sin x = 0?

## …-3, -2, -, 0, , 2, 3, 4, . . .

7 3  5
 
2 2 2 2

 3  2   0  2 3 4

## Where is the function maximum? Where does sin x = 1?

7 3  5
 , , , 
2 2 2 2
Where is the function minimum? Where does sin x = -1?

5  3 7
 , , , 
2 2 2 2
7 3  5
 
2 2 2 2

 3  2   0  2 3 4

5  3 7
 
2 2 2 2
Thinking about transformations that you learned
and knowing what y = sin x looks like, what do
you suppose y = sin x + 2 looks like?

## y = 2 + sin x This is often written

places so as not to
confuse the 2 with
part of sine function

## The function value

(or y value) is just
moved up 2.

y = sin x
learned and knowing what y = sin x looks like,
what do you suppose y = sin x - 1 looks like?

y = sin x
The function value
(or y value) is just
moved down 1.

y = - 1 + sin x
Thinking about transformations that you learned
and knowing what y = sin x looks like, what do
you suppose y = sin (x + /2) looks like?
y = sin x

This is a horizontal
shift by - /2

y = sin (x + /2)
Thinking about transformations that you learned
and knowing what y = sin x looks like, what do
you suppose y = - sin (x )+1 looks like?
y = 1 - sin (x )
the x axis (shown in
green) and then a
vertical shift up one.
y = - sin x

y = sin x
What would the graph of y = f(x) = cos x look like?
We could do a "t" chart and let's choose values from our
unit circle and find the cosine values.
plot these points
x y = cos x y

0 1 1
 1
3 2
  x
0 -1 6
2
2 1

3 2 We could have used the same values as we did
for sine but picked ones that gave us easy
values to plot.
y = f(x) = cos x
Choose more values.

x y = cos x
plot these points
 1 y
4 1
 1
3 2
3
0
2  x
5 1 -1 6
3 2

## 2 1 cosine will then repeat as you go another loop

around the unit circle
Here is the graph y = f(x) = cos x showing
from -2 to 6. Notice it repeats with a
period of 2.
2 2 2 2

## It has a maximum of 1 and a minimum of -1 (remember

that is the range of the cosine function)
Recall that an even function (which the cosine is)
is symmetric with respect to the y axis as can be
seen here
What are the x intercepts? Where does cos x = 0?

3   3 5
 , , , , 
2 2 2 2 2
 2 0 2

3    3 5

2 2 2 2 2

## Where is the function maximum? Where does cos x = 1?

…-4, -2, , 0, 2, 4, . . .
Where is the function minimum? Where does cos x = -1?

## …-3, -, , 3, . . .

 2 0 2

3    3 5
 4
2 2 2 2 2

 3   3
You could graph transformations of the cosine function the
same way you've learned for other functions.
moves up 3 moves right /4
Let's try y = 3 - cos (x - /4)
reflects over x axis

y = - cos x
y = cos x

## y = 3 - cos x y = 3 - cos (x - /4)

What would happen if we multiply the function by a
constant? All function values would be twice as high

y = 2 sin x
amplitude is here
amplitude
of this y = 2 sin x
graph is 2

y = sin x

## The highest the graph goes (without a vertical shift) is

called the amplitude.
For y = A cos x and y = A sin x, A  is the amplitude.

## What is the amplitude for the following?

y = 4 cos x y = -3 sin x

amplitude is 4 amplitude is 3
The last thing we want to see is what happens if we put
a coefficient on the x.
y = sin 2x

y = sin 2x

y = sin x

## It makes the graph "cycle" twice as fast. It does one

complete cycle in half the time so the period becomes .
What do you think will happen to the graph if we put a
fraction in front?
1
y  sin x
2
y = sin 1/2 x

y = sin x

## The period for one complete cycle is twice as long or 4

So if we look at y = sin x the  affects the
period.
2 This will
be true for
The period T =
 cosine as
well.
2 
What is the period of y = cos 4x? T 
4 2
y = cos x
This means
the graph
will "cycle"
every /2 or
4 times as
often y = cos 4x
absolute value of this
is the amplitude

y  A cos t y  A sin t