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• The process of superimposing digitally rendered images
onto our real-world surroundings, giving a sense of an
illusion or virtual reality. Recent developments have made
this technology accessible using a Smartphone

• The origin of the word augmented is augment, which

means to add or enhance something. In the case of
Augmented Reality (also called AR), graphics, sounds,
and touch feedback are added into our natural world to
create an enhanced user experience
What is AR?

• .
 The beginnings of AR, as we define it, date back to
Sutherland’s work in the 1960s, which used a see-through
HMD to present 3D graphics. However, only over the past
decade has there been enough work to refer to AR as a
research field.
 In 1997, Azuma published a survey that defined the field,
described many problems, and summarized the
developments up to that point.
 Since then, AR’s growth and progress have been
Types of AR
• Augmented Reality (AR) Categories: Several categories of augmented
reality technology exist, each with varying differences in their objectives
and applicational use cases.
• Marker Based Augmented Reality: Marker-based augmented reality
(also called Image Recognition) uses a camera and some type of visual
marker, such as a QR/2D code, to produce a result only when the marker
is sensed by a reader.
Markerless Augmented Reality
Markerless (also called location-based, position-based, or GPS)
augmented reality, uses a GPS, digital compass, velocity meter, or
accelerometer which is embedded in the device to provide data based
on your location. A strong force behind markerless augmented reality
technology is the wide availability of smartphones and location
detection features they provide. It is most commonly used for mapping
directions, finding nearby businesses, and other location-centric
mobile applications.
Projection Based Augmented Reality
Projection based augmented reality works by projecting artificial
light onto real world surfaces. Projection based augmented
Superimposition Based Augmented Reality
Superimposition based augmented reality either partially or fully
replaces the original view of an object with a newly augmented
view of that same object.
• Technique used by robots and autonomous vehicles to build
up a map within an unknown environment (without a priori
knowledge), or to update a map within a known environment
(with a priori knowledge from a given map), while at the
same time keeping track of their current location.
• Enable a 360 degrees augmented view
Augmented Reality Browsers
• The use of the term “AR browser” suggests these products are
comparable to generic web browsers such as Internet Explorer.
• Generic web browsers all adhere more or less strictly to a set of
standards for mark-up and therefore different browsers can consume
and render the same web content in a consistent manner.
• In contrast standards for augmented reality applications are still in
their infancy and there is no interoperability between AR
• is a data standard to describe and interact with augmented reality
(AR) scenes.
• It is developed within the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) by a dedicated
Standards Working Group.
• ARML consists of both an XML grammar to describe the location and
appearance of virtual objects in the scene, as well as ECMAScript
bindings to allow dynamic access to the properties of the virtual
objects, as well as event handling
Augmented Reality Browsers
• Argon, Arlab, Aurasma, Layar, Mixare (open source), Wikitude
• Two majors ones are:
• Wikitude uses location-based content from social media and groups data
based on certain business niches and verticals. Wikitude allows for
scanning print journals, magazines, brochures, ads and labels for 3D
• Wikitude SDK is compatible with most of development platforms and
frameworks including iOS, Android, tablet, smart glasses, PhoneGap,
Cordova, Tamarin, Titanium, Unity 3D and others.
• .
• Layar, unlike Wikitude, aims to revive and augment static content pages
(e.g., journals, magazines, booklets).
• Besides offering the Layar browser app and building bespoke AR
solutions for clients, Layar offers its own SDK and value-added
services to application developers. Using them, developers can
create AR layers and integrate them in their app with PhoneGap
framework plugin. Layar SDK isn't free of charge and publishing
through it requires purchasing additional page credits
Implementation Framework
• Hardware
To make the system to be as lightweight and
comfortable as possible, off-the-shelf hardware can be
used to avoid the expense, effort, and time involved in
building our own.
• Software
Software infrastructure Coterie, a prototyping environment
that provided language-level support for distributed virtual
Augmented Reality Platforms

• Augment
• Eon Reality
• Hoppala: world’s largest content platform for geo based
• Jaunt
• OnVert
• OpenHybrid
• String
• Total Immersion
• Vuforia
Augmented Reality Providers
• ARToolworks: camera-based augmented reality, first
showing its core product - ARToolKit
• Atheer Labs: Gesture-based 3D Augmented Interactive
RealityPlatform for the enterprise
• Blippar: AR marker based platform
• Catchoom: Image Recognition and Augmented Reality tools.
• Daqri: Editor of Daqri 4D studio
• InGlobe Technologies:development of Augmented Reality
solutions and Perceptual Computing systems.
• Innovega: eyewear-based platforms based on the patented
iOptikTM display
Development Companies
• Glorar
• Specialized in 3D app on mobile, works with AR23D design company
if needed
• Immersion
• Company in France specialised in AR
• Total Immersion
• AR for Brands
• Kudan
• Augmented reality provider
• Marxent Labs
• Mainly developing on Vuforia
• Merchlar
• Design Agency (AR)

Main classes of applications:

 Medical
 Manufacturing and repair
 Annotation and visualization
 Robot path planning
 Entertainment
 Military aircraft


IKEA Catalogue


Copyright © William El Kaim 2016 21



IOS and Android

Advantages of AR

• Can increase knowledge and information

• People can share experiences with each other in real
time over long distances
• Games that provide an even more "real" experience
• Things come to life on people's mobile
• Form of escapism
Disadvantages of AR

• Spam and Security

• Social and Real-Time vs. Solitary and Cached
• UX (User Experience): Using AR can be inappropriate
in social situations.
• Openness: Other people can develop their own layers
of content to display
Issues in Augmented Reality

• Performance Issues
Real time processing of images can be a challenge and often can
slow down augmented reality systems.
• Interaction Issues
Users within a mixed environment because of augmented reality
have difficulties interacting with the environment as normal.
• Alignment Issues
People working in an augmented reality are more sensitive to
alignment errors. Proper calibration and alignment with the
reference frame of the world is crucial.

• Technological limitations
• User interface limitation
• Social acceptance

• Augmented reality is another step further into the

digital age as we will soon see our environments
change dynamically either through a Smartphone,
glasses, car windshields and even windows in the near
future to display enhanced content and media right in
front of us.
• This has amazing applications that can very well allow
us to live our lives more productively, more safely, and
more informatively.