You are on page 1of 34

HVAC training

learnings
Assigned locations:
Quezon City
- Quezon City hall

Pampanga
-
Key persons:
Quezon City Hall
Sir Paul
Engr. Christian
Engr. Peter
Engr. Criste
Engr. Jun
Sir Frank
Quezon City Hall Project
Project Title:
 Retrofitting of QC hall main building airconditioning system at Quezon City
hall compound.
Number of floors:
 3rd floor to 15th floor
Contractor:
Hi-cool
Contract Schedule:
August 2017 – February 2018
Topics discussed
• Introduction to VRF System
• Types of FCU (Fan Coil Units) / Indoor units
• Conversion of units
• Design Considerations
• Heat load calculation (simplified method)
• Piping layout and sizing
• Familiarization of the common tools and items used.
• Installation procedure
VRF / VRV (Variable Refrigerant Flow /
Volume
• VRV/VRF technology is based on the simple vapor compression cycle (same as conventional split air
conditioning systems) but gives you the ability to continuously control and adjust the flow of refrigerant to
different internal units, depending on the heating and cooling needs of each area of the building. (A. Bhatia,
CED Engineering)
• The refrigerant flow to each evaporator is adjusted precisely through a pulse wave electronic expansion
valve in conjunction with an inverter and multiple compressors of varying capacity, in response to changes
in the cooling or heating requirement within the air conditioned space. (A. Bhatia, CED Engineering)
• The fundamental of an air conditioning system is the use of a refrigerant to absorb heat from the indoor
environment and transfer it to the external environment.
• In the cooling mode, indoor units are supplied with liquid refrigerant. The amount of refrigerant flowing
through the unit is controlled via an expansion valve located inside the unit. When the refrigerant enters
the coil, it undergoes a phase change (evaporation) that extracts heat from the space, thereby cooling the
room. The heat extracted from the space is exhausted to the ambient air. (A. Bhatia, CED Engineering)
Refrigerant used and its comparisson
• Newer air conditioning models are designed to be used with R-410A for reliable
and more efficient operation. Because R-410A can absorb and release more heat
than R-22, your air conditioning compressor can run cooler, reducing the risk of
compressor burnout due to overheating.
Types of FCU (Fan Coil Units) / Indoor units
• Ceiling Type
• Cassete – 4 way or 2 way • ceiling concealed

• Under the ceiling


• Wall type

• Floor mounted
Conversion of units
Table 1.0
To Convert To Multiply by

Horsepower Kilowatts 0.7457

Horsepower BTU/ Hr 2,545

Tons (refrigeration) BTU/ Hr. 12,000

Watts BTU/ Hr. 3.413

Meter Foot 3.281


Heat load Calculation
As per advised, basic heat load calculation can be achieved using the following
factors:

For area with minimal cooling needed (Residential)


1 TR = 15 m2 – 18 m2

For area with higher sensible cooling needed (office, kitchen and etc.)
1 TR = 10 m2 – 15 m2

For area with higher cooling needed (Client requirement)


1 TR = 8 m2 – 10 m2
Piping layout and sizing
Main pipe sizing
Table 2.0
Outdoor unit Gas/Liquid piping dia. Gas/Liquid piping dia. Multi-kit
(HP) in mm. (L<100)m in mm. (L>100)m type
8 19.05 / 9.53 22.2 / 12.7
E – NP282S
10 22.2 / 9.53 25.4 / 12.7
12 to 14 25.4 / 12.7 28.6 / 15.8
E – NP452S
16 28.6 / 12.7 31.75 / 15.8
18 to 24 28.6 / 15.8 31.75 / 19.05 E – NP692S
26 to 34 31.75 / 19.05 34.9 / 22.2
E – NP902S
36 to 44 38.01 / 19.05 41.3 / 22.2
Main pipe sizing
Table 2.1
Indoor unit (kW) Gas/Liquid piping dia. in mm. Multi-kit type

≥ 101 38.1 / 19.05 E –NP902S


70 to 100.9 31.75 / 19.05
50 to 72.9 28.6 / 15.8 E – NP692S
45 to 49.9 28.6 / 12.7
33.5 to 44.9 25.4 / 12.7 E – NP452S

25 to 33.4 22.2 / 9.53


16 to 24.9 19.05 / 9.53 E – NP282S

≤ 15.9 15.8 / 9.53


Branch pipe sizing
Table 2.2
Indoor unit Load in Load in Gas/Liquid piping dia. in mm.
type (HP) (kW)
2.3 to 6 6.47 to 16.88 5/8 , 3/8
Cassette 1.8 to 2 5 to 5.6 5/8 , 1/4
1 to 1.5 2.8 to 4.2 1/2 , 1/4
2.5 to 4 7 to 11.25 5/8 , 3/8
Wall Mounted 2 5.6 5/8 , 1/4
1 to 1.5 2.8 to 4.2 1/2 , 1/4
2.5 to 6 7 to 16.88 5/8 , 3/8
Ceiling 2 5.6 5/8 , 1/4
1.5 4.2 1/2 , 1/4
1.) 1.) 1.)
A C E 1.)
* * * * * * * *

2.)
A D B F C G D H I E
B
1.) 1.) 1.) 1.)

1.)

1.) • Indoor Unit


2.) • Outdoor Unit
• Main Line
• Branch line
* • Separation tube/ Pipe kit / Refnet
Main line sizing
A 1.) Add the capacity of the indoor units after the main line.

9 kW

A
9 kW

LoadA = 9 + 9 = 18 kW
Based on Table 2.1
Gas/Liquid piping dia. in mm.: 19.05 / 9.53
Multi-kit type: E – NP282S
Main line sizing
B 2.) Add again the capacity of all the indoor units after the main line you are trying to size.

9 kW 9 kW

A B

9 kW 11.2 kW

LoadB = 9 + 9 + 9 + 11.2 = 38.2 kW


Based on Table 2.1
Gas/Liquid piping dia. in mm.: 25.4 / 12.7
Multi-kit type: E – NP452S
3.) Repeat the procedure until you get all the size of the main line.
Distance of Branch line from Main line
• As per advised, the distance should be in the range of 1 m to 1.5 m so that
the refrigerant can have enough travel time before entering the FCU.
Familiarization of the common tools and
items used.

Copper Tube
 Commercial size is 20 ft.
 Advantagious in airconditioning application
• Resistant to corrosion
• High level of heat transfer
• Machinability
• Separation Tube/pipekit/refnet • Full threaded rod

• Grip anchor • Silver rod • Pipe cutter


• Copper tube insulation • Polyethylene tape • Slotted bar

• Oxy-acetylene welding • Aero tape


Installation procedure
• As per the plan, we can start measuring the location of our FCU.
• Putting some markings on the proposed location of the FCU.
• Checking the situation at the ceiling and locating if there are any
obstructions for our Main line.
• Preparation for hangering of the main line pipes.
Note: Distance between hangers should be 1.5 m to 2 m
Grinding of the edge of Welded the slotted bar in
the full threaded rod the support
• Putting on some insulation and wrapped it with polyethylene tape for
the preparation of the copper tubes to be brazed.
Adding adhesive to join the insulation
Wrapping the copper insulation with polyethylene tape
• Brazing of the copper tube.

• Ground • At the ceiling


• Pipe laying
• Main Line • Branch Line
• Hauling of the FCU going to the machine room for storage.
Electrical work and etc.
• Helped in designing the junction box to be used using auto cad.
• Helped in drafting the electrical wiring diagram.
THE END